Skip to main content

Full text of "Public school physiology and temperance"

See other formats

Property of OISF__JT Librery 
Pieuse return to 252 Bloor St. West 
Attention: Kathy Imrie 


Physiology and Temperance 




Entercd, according to the Act o the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousnd 
cight hundrcd and ninety-thrce, by VII.LIM Rl((]» "/'oronto, in tbe olce o! the 
Mtniter o! Agriculture, t Otta,. 


I preparing this textbook, much ditIiculty was experienced 
in dealing with a subject of a somewhat technical character 
without using too freely the technical terres incident to 
Anatony and Physiology. The practice of the auth«,rs-of 
the best text-books published bas, however, bcen f,,llowed. 
The introduction of a limited number of the simpler scientific 
mmes, while partly a necessity, nevertheless aflLrds an 
tunity for pupils fo become early acquainted with the vaq,,us 
parts of the human frame under names which arc more 
correct and more suitable than many of the familiar terms in 
common u ; besides, experience st,ows itis impossible to 
fix in the memory a knowledge of any subject, except by 
the use of its own appropriate nomenclature. 
The object of the author has been to put clearly before he 
teachers and pupils the leading facts concerning the structure 
and functions of the various organs of the body, and, af the 
saine tUbe, to associate with these facts the physiological 
action and effects of alcoholic stimulants and narcotics. The 
pupil is, in this way, af every turn confronted with the evil 
effects of alcohol and tobacco, the dangers accompanying 
their use, and the tremendous rik of tampering with such 
powerful agents of destruction. 

• he benefits fo be derived rom a prper observance o the 
laws of health cannot be over-estimated, and while teachers 
inculcate abstinence from stlmulants, they should imlress 
upon their pupils the observance of such practices with regard 
fo all the functions as wou]d promote the bighest possible 
development of mind and =ly. 
The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the follow- 
ing for valuable hints: Martin's "Human Body," Star]ing's 
"Human Physiology," Blaisdell's "Young Folks' Physiology," 
Steele's "Hyenic Physiology, .... Manual of Hygiene," To. 
ronto, Sir B. "W. lichardson's "Cantor Lectures on A]coho]," 
besides fre«luent reference to Gray, Foster, Hux]ey, Hare, 
Sajous, Nett]eship, Lees, and many others. 


TOO-TO» ()«'bber, 1893. 


LTaoDvc-roaY : The Skeleton--How it is built up 9 
THI Bo.Es : The Number of Bones--Uses--Composition--Structure 
--Growth nd Repair--Skull--Trunk--Upper Extremitiei-- 
Lower Extremities--J,ints--Care of the Budy--Effects of 
kloehol and Tobaco 15 
I'HE ]IrscLEs : The Structure of Muscles--Arrangement--Cla.ifl- 
cation--Tendons--Cre of ]Iuscles--Action of Alcohol and 
Tobacco on Musculr Sense. 39 
THE SKL" : The Epidermis--True Skin--Glnds of the Skin--Th 
Hair--Nils--Cre of the Skin--Bthing--Skin Affectins-- 
Effects of Alcohol 48 
DmEsIo¢: .Xeed for Food--lIouth--Teeth--Salivary Glands-- 
Pharynx -- OEsophagus -- Stomach -- Intestines -- Pancreas -- 
Liver-- Kinds of Food--Action of the Ferments-- Appetito 
--Natural and Prepared Drnks- Action of Alcohol on the 
Stomach--On the Liver--Effect of Tobcco op Digestion. 58 
CIRCULATION : The Blood -- The Heart -- Arteries -- Veins-- How 
Blood is lIade to Flow--Effects of Alcohol on the Heart-- 
On the Blood-vessels--Effects of Toba¢co on the Heart, , 0 

vi COrEVTS. 

HESPIRATION : Why we BretbeThe Lse Voioee 
Pleu--The Act of Brthing- ange of Elemen in the 
LunEffec of Impe AiroEenation--Mow Ht is 
kept up--N of Clothhg--Eff of oehol on Rp- 
tion--gret Smokhg . 91 
THE NRVOçS Sys: The Bin--Gy and i Matr- 
b--Cerellum--Iu Oblon--e Spinal Cord 
NervSptbetic SysmGrob and Development of 
Bin--Rst and SleeAbuoe of aroetiEffec of Al 
hol on thc Bh--On the Nervo Sysm--Tob 

TH Se.CAL SESS: Tate--Smell--Sight--Hering--Touch--Rel 
ti-n of Slcial S-ses--Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on the 
. pecial nse 

:FIRsT A2DS TO THE SIc AND ID: BandplinPoul- 
ti--HoemorrhBis of An--Bs and Slds 
Frost-biBmken nDltio--Spins -- Ii- 
I,le Conditions--InxitlonDmhgufftion by G 
Forei i h the Eyc, Ear, e.--Poim 


tlow o II"VEX-T I)ISEE: Preventable DLaes--Infeetious and 
C'ontagious Diseases--Means of Invading the Human System-- 
Antil,ties and Disinfectants--The Sick Rm--Stinmlants in 
the 8ick Rm 


PFITSI¢'AL EXRClS: The ]3eneflts of Exercise--Kind of Exercise-- 
legulation of Exerci---Time for Fxercise---Necessity for 
ercise--(;ytuna.stic Training--Free Gymnatics . 174 
APPEXDlX I.--Regulations of the Edncation I)epartment respecting 
the Study of Physiology and Temperance . 194 
APPEDIX II. --Quotatious from the License Act with respect to Minors 195 
APPgh'DIX ML--An Act r«pecting the Use of Tobacco by Minors 196 





1. The Skeleton.--Man is the noblest being God has 
ruade to inhabit this earth. Let us examine the human body. 
First, notice the framework. It is not comely nor attractive, 
and even appears ill-adapted to form the framework of a 
living being, with high and noble purposes, capable of great 
attainments. Yet every bone is a model of wisdom and per- 
fection, adapted to a specific object. The whole skeleton, so 
irregular in outline and so unattractive to look at, is built 
und fashioned with a degree of wisdom which taxes the mind 
go comprehend. Every prominence, every depression, every 
line, every curve, has a special purpose. 
2. The Joints.--This framework is a movable structure, 
and, to permit of motion, is supplied with a certain number 
and variety of joints, by which the limbs may be moved in 
various directions and the whole body from place to place. 
The utility and the wise construction of these joints will be 
pointed out in another place. 
3. The Muscles.--The power by whieh the joints are 
moved is provided by the muscles, which in a great measure 
form the bulk of the limbs and body generally. The muscles, 
stretching from point to point, are attaehed to the bones by 
ndons of a fine ¢ord-like nature, and, by a power which 


they have of contracting and relaxing, produce motion of the 
joints. They act upon the principle of the levers---one or 
other of the three kinds. In the attachment of the muscles 
we see the admirable purpose vhich the various prominences 
and depressions upon the bones are intended te serve. 
4. lascia.--The nmscles are invested and bound down by 
a fine, thin membrane, called fascia, which protects and keeps 
them in place. 
5. The Nerves.--The muscles are moved and controlled 
through the nerves su[,plied te them. The nerves ferre the 
connectlng links between the muscles atone end and the 
brain and spinal cord, or marrow, at the other. The brain 
and spinal col"d may be called the headttuarters of the nervous 
system, lervo cords of vari«ms sizes extend frein the head- 
quarters te the numerous muscles of the body, where they 
divide and ramify. Each nerve is like a telegraph wire, along 
whic| are coveyed communicttions h'om the nerve centrç 
te e-ery part of the muscular system. Orders ma)- be trans- 
mitted frein the brain te a muscle, when it is te move, how it 
is te move, and when itis te cease moving. Ail muscles 
emp|oyed in moving the body are under the control of the 
will of the individual. 
6. Fat.--Outside the muscles, and often filling in the in- 
equality of surfaze, there is, during the greater part of life, a 
layer of adipose tissue or fat. This serves very important 
purposes in the physical economy, and ferres a valuable co er- 
ing mtd cushion te the parts beneath. It also gves beauty te 
the figure, |)y producing graceful ferre of limb and body. 
The fat is contained in the cells of a structure known as 
cellula" tissue, vhich serves also as a connective tissue be- 
tween parts. 
7. The Skin.--The human body thus built up is covered 
by the skin. The skin net only ferres a pr«»tective covering 
te the parts beneath, but, being possessed of nerf'eus sensi- 


bility, if indica.tes te the system the state of the atmosphere 
and other surrounding conditions and gives warning of de- 
structive influences. In seine parts, as in the fingers thi 
sensibility is most delicate and acute. ]-/ere the nerves of 
sense are more closely distributed, and are in freer communi- 
cation with each other. They act as sentinels te warrt the 
body of danger and when danger is af hand they te]egraph 
te the l» or spinal cord te more the lira|) or body fr,Jm 
thia exposed position, or te assume  position of defence. 
The lightning speed with which these communications are 
maxle rnay be seert when a finger urtexpectedly cornes in con- 
tc with a hot substance. 
8. The Brain and Spinal Cord.--Ve have new bef,)re 
us a self-moving structure ronde up of bones, ligaments tf) 
 hold together the b,nes et the joints, muscles fat, connective 
tissue and skin, with a nervous system, consisting «»f the 
'rain spinal marroxv, and nerves comnunicating with ex,ery 
part te superintend and manage this mova»le tenement. 
The force required te move the system and the hent necessary 
for lire are se]f-created. 
9. /ktoms.--The body formed of these several tissues is 
composed of material of limited durability. There is a limit 
te lire with regard te «»ur indivi«|ual loeing, l»ut thera is a 
much briefer limi te tle lire «»f the particles out of which the 
tissues are constructed. Each of these atoms or cells h,s 
an indixidua] ]ife. It passes a state of existence «, com- 
paratively short durati«»n. During its te'm ,»f existence ît 
has the ordin,ry tages of life--birth growth, deveh»pment, 
maturity, decline and denth. The cells are the «»ff.pring 
parent cells, and in turn beget offspring bef,,re they die. 
infancy, childhood, maturity and old age the »ody is ever 
perishing. It is this constant ]oss of particles, this wear and 
tear of tissue, -]Sch causes t],e demand for dai]y food. Until 
the body is fully mntured food is, 'equired for the growth of 


the tissue ; subsequently itis only needed to maintain the 
hody, to make repairs and to supply heat. The human body 
may be ]ikened to a building, composed of many parts, of 
different forms, size, density and durahility. Together they 
corstitute a perfect structure, harmonious in every part. But 
one or more of these pieces decay, and to retain the inteoTity 
of the structure, repair is matie hy suhstituting a sound piece 
f,»r the one decayed or worn out. Thus repair of a building 
may he effected by a competent builder, even to replacing the 
foundati-n st,»ne. In this manner repair is constantly taking 
place in the listing body. Iv is a work of nature, and is 
carried on by wise laws and with unerring precision. 
10. Digestion.--The source of supply for repairing the 
tissues of the body is the food which we eat. To convert the 
fo,d into hlood, the body is proided with the digestive system, 
consisting of the mouth, teeth, tongue, cesophagus or gullet, 
stomach, and the intestines. Each of these organs is placed 
in a p«»siti«,n rJost convenient to serve its purposes. In con- 
nection with'the digestive system are a number of glands, to 
secrete t]uids required in the process of digestion, lirst, the 
salivary glands, which discharge the salira into the mouth, fo 
be mixed with the food as itis ground up by the teeth. After 
this step in the process of digestion, the food passes along 
the gnllet to the aomaclg, where itis hurned up, and at the 
saine rime mixed rith the gastric j«ice, secreted by glands 
placed in the cts of the stomaeh. The gre)ish pulpy mass 
thus produced, called chy_m..e, passes into the intestines, to 
undergo further changes from the acti«»n of the intestinal 
juice, the bile fxm the liver and the fluid secreed hy 
the pancreas'. "-. The chemical and xtal changes which have 
now taken place have prepared the aliment to mix with the 
blood, and the chyle, as itis now called, is taken up by a 
system of absorbC'n vessels and passes by a duct called the 
thoracic duct, tobe emptied into the grea¢ volume of blood 


circulating through the system. The nutritious fluid thus 
added to the blood is gradually developed, and has imparted 
toit the vital properties of the blood, and in due rime is in a 
fit state to become food for the tissues or to repair the loss 
caused by the death of microscopical cells. 
11. The Circulatory System.--This system carries the 
blood back and forth from the heart to every part of the 
body. It consists of the ]eart, arteries and veins, and hair- 
like canals called caillaries. A second circulatory system 
carries the blood fo and from the lungs fo the heart. The 
first, or long circuit, is to feed the tissues and remove the 
wornut materiat; the second, or short circuit, through the 
lungs, is to cast out of the system the products of decay and 
death of tissue, and to receive from the air taken into the 
lungs the oxygen without which lire cannot exist. 
12. The Respiratory System.--More immediately neces- 
sary for life than the circulation is the process of breathing, 
and the two lungs, which in the lower animais are called 
lig]ts, occupy a large space in the upper part oï tbe body, 
called the thorax. The bronchial tubes, which extend from 
the trachea, or windpipe, to the inner surfaces of the lungs, 
communicate with the external air through the nose. 
13. The Excretory System.--Besides the lungs, there 
are other organs, whose function itis to carry out of the 
system various elements not only useless to sustain the body, 
but more or less injurious to the process of life. These are 
the intestines, the kidneys, and the skin. 
14. /klcohol, Tobacco, etc.--This brief survey of the 
human body, and the manner in which the functions of life 
are carried on, will prepare us to consider more particularly 
the structure of the various tissues and organs ; how they are 
nourished and sustalned, and what are the requirements to 
keep the body in health. We will endeavor to show that 
perfect health depends upon the care we give the body, the 



regularity with which we attend toits many needs, and thc 
judgment we exercise in taking into the system only that 
which is pure and wholesome, and avoiding those things 
which tend to irritate, to injure and to destroy. 
One of the uost destructive agents man bas brought into 
use is ALCOnOL. Owing toits use as a beverage, if bas become 
a powerful evii. Taken into the systeu regularly, if becomes 
an overpowcring enemy. Alcohol uay be presented in many 
different lotus. There are a large number of intoxicating 
bcverages, each of which is supposed to possess soue special 
virtue. They are ail alike seductive, and are taken for the 
aic,»hol they cont«in Soue bave only a suall auount of 
alcohol in thcm, and are classed as mild drin]s Others are 
nc«trly onc-half alcohol, and are called strong d'inks. No 
uattcr in what foru itis takcn, we will find in the succeeding 
ch:pters of this l»ook, that evcry tissue and cvery organ of thc 
is«ly is influenced bi its use. 'e are alto convinced that 
furthcr evidcnce will hot be nceded to show that perfect 
health cannot be hoped for when alcohol is taken in ever so 
small a (tuantity. 
Toscco, though "the lesr evil of the two," is» perhaps, 
more univcrsally used than aicohol ; and is, doubtless, respon- 
sil»le f«,r uany a headache, a deranged ste»mach, a weak heart., 
or a stunted body. Lile alcohol, if is also prsented in uay 
different lotus. Soue draw it into the nose as snoE; others 
take it into the mouth, ix) chew; while others, again, smoke it, 
either in the foru of a cigarette, a cigar, or in a pipe. Taken 
in any foru, it is uore or less distasteful fo those about 
who (lo hot use it, while soue of the modes of taking tobacco 
deserve strong condemnation. 
The evil effects of oPv are hot to be less dreaded than 
those of alcohoi. We shall fmd that, while it is a useful drug 
in the hands of a careful physician, if is too powerful a one to 
be used indifferent|y. The opium eater is as much to be 
pitied as the drunkard. 



1. The Number of Bones.Therc are two hundred and 

six boncs in the human body at maturity. 
arranged as follows (see Fig. 1) : 
I. The bones of the Head : 
1. Brain case (Cranium) 
2. Face. 
3. Ears. 
II. The bones of the Trunk : 
1. Spinal coluran (Vertebrtr) . 
2. Riba. 
3. Hip bones (Inn¢rainttla) 
4. Breast bone (ternum) 
5. Tongue bone (Hyod) 
III. The bonea of the Upper Extrenity: 
î. Shoulder (Scapula and ClavicIe) 
2. Axm (Hnmerus) 
3. Forearm (Ubta and 
4. Wrist ( Grp«l) . 
5. Palm (M,.'tacxtrpal) 
6. Fingers (Phalaffes) . 
IV. The bonea of the Lower Extremity : 
1. Thigh ( Femu 0 . 
2. Knee-lan (Patella) 
3. Lg (Tia and ibda) 
4. Ankle (Tarsal) . 
5. Instep ( 3let«tavsal) . 
6. Toea (Pha/anges) 
We may also speak of bones as 
ong--The bonea of the arms, legs, etc. 
,Sor--The bones of the fingers, toes, etc. 
F/at--The akull, ahoulder blade, etc. 
Irre9dav--Hi p bones, heel bones, etc. 

They may be 

(,t, b) 8 

(«, e) 26 
(.9 2 
(d) 1 
(f, ff) 2 
(,) 8 
(0 5 
() 14 
(r) 1 
(,,) 7 
() 5 
(p) 14 


2. Uses.--The bones serve various purposes in the chffer- 
ent parts of the body. The skull incaaes and protcta the 
brain. The spinal column, x ith ita numerous processes, pro- 
tects the spinal tord within, while at the same time affording 
convenient points for muscular attachment. So also the bones 
of the chest, while formed in a great meaaure to protect the 
important orgns within, give attachment, to muscles. It, is 
the saine with regard to the lower bones 
--: " of the trnk, namely, the hips or pel»-ic 
bones. The bones of the arm form a most 
 important member of the body. They are 
 so shaped that the muscles lying upon them 
: afford a variety and freedom of movement 
.I t the arm and hand not found in any other 
... part of the body. The bones of the lower 
extremity are mainly for the purpose of 
sustaining tlle body in the erect position, 
and of moving it from place to place. 
3. Composition of Bone.--Healthy 
bone in a state of nature consists of an 
organic or animal matter blended with an 
inorganic or earthy portion, 'hereby elas- 
ticity and firmness are obtained. In youth 
Fte. 2.--The Fihula, it is about equally composed of animal and 
orouterhoneotbeleg, minerai matter, in middle life it is about 
tied in a knot, fter the 
hardmineralmatterhas one part animal to two parts mineral, and 
been diasolved out hy in old age the mineral matter is largely in 
excess. Cnsequently, in the young the 
bone may be considerably bent by external force without 
breaking, and, like a green stick, will rebound when the 
force is removed. On the contrary, in old age any force 
sufliciently great to bend the bone will cause a fracture ; 
whfie in middle lire the proportion of animal and mineral 

matter is such as to allow suflïcient flexibility and secure 
strength fo enable man to fttlfil the duties of lire. 
If a bone be exposed to the action of certain aids--weak 
muriatic oeid, for instance--the mineral marrer will be dis- 
solved, and the bone, although retaining its normal size and 
shape, will become flexible ]ike a rubber 
tube. On the other hand, if a bone be 
placed in the tire, the animal matter will 
dippear, leaving the bone light in weight 
and easily crumbled into powder. 
4 Ossifying Bone.--Ia the child at 
birth the entire framework is ruade of car- 
tilage or gristle, and the gradual conversion 
into bone is called ossification. This process 
commences in the middle of the bone, and 
gradually extends to'the borders. ,%mm- 
rimes there are two or more points of ossifi- 
cation, in which case the several growing 
areas of bone approach each other and 
coalesce, the place of the union being 
marked by a line (see sull, page 21). 
5. The Structure of Bone.--The con- 
sistence of bone varies, according to its use 
and according to its mode of construction. 
In every instance there is manifested infinite 
wisdom in securing strength without unne- 
cessary bulk. 
In a fresh long bone, sawn lenhwise, it F,«. 3.--The Thigh- 
is seen that the shaft is ruade up of two so,« or Femur, awa 
portions, the outer or cortical portion, and lengthwise. 
the irmer or spongy portion. The outer portion is hard and 
firm, and is covered by a dense fibrous membrane closely 
attached, and through which blood is supphed o the bone. 
This is called the eriosteum. 


The apongy portion forms the bulk of the shaft, and at 
either extremity makes an expansion to form joint surface. 
This spongy tissue consists of elongated bony cells, and the 
walls of the cells g6ve lightness and strength, while the tiny 
channels afford a pssage for the nutrient fluid to pss. In 
the interior of the bone is lodged the i.arrow» composed of 
fat and numerous blood-vessels, for supplyng the central por- 
tion of the bone with nourishment. The blood-vessels within 
the bone are a continuation and subdision of an arter, 
which enters the bone through a amall opening seen in all 
bones, and called the nutrientforamen. 
 - -. .......  . •  -- -- 
, -  " - - ' ,« ". 
" : ". '»  -. . • - I  *, 
«    .>  , .  , -,' .  , 
,,)) .  ,.  -'« -'_ , i "' E  ç "" 
Fo= ¢.--A rhin slice of ne highly mnified, showing little eentr nals for the 
blo-veel«) nd tiny tubes lot the pe ol nutment  the be te. e 
bIk ecks e little cavities in the 
If e exme  rhin sliee of boae uader the microscoçe, 
we fiad it  maped out into a number of ereular dtHcts, 
ad in the centre of eaeh district is  smII cnul for the 
psage of a mute blo-vessel. These cnals do hot r 
pmel with oach other, or wth the shaft of the ae. Some 

open into the marrow, and receive their blood-vessels from if, 
while others open on the surface beneath the periosteum, and 
adroit blood-vessels. 
Each canal is the centre of a complete system of blood 
supply to the district. Little tubes run outwards, like spokes 
from a wheel, communicating with each other and with numer- 
ous other cavities (seea in Fig. 4, as black specks) in such a 
way as to carry the blood to every part of the bone. 
6. Growth and Repair of Bone.--The system of blood 
supply in the bone, so admirable in its arrangement, furn£shes 
the osseous structure with nutriment for growth and develop- 
ment ; also, for the repair of tissue, a the bone is subject to 
the saine continual decay and death of the minute cells as 
are the other tissues, and ordinary repair is constantly being 
7. Healing of Broken Bone. "Whea the bone is broken, 
these vessels supply the material necessary for repair or union 
of the fragments. The plasma of the bloxl is poured out 
upoa and around the fractured ends, at first gluing them 
together, and holding them firm until new bone cells are 
thrown out. In this way the two ends are knit tgether, and 
soon the bone becomes as strong as before it was broken. 
But in order that this work of nature may properly proceed, 
the fractured bone must be kept at rest and the adjoining 
muscles relaxed. This is best done by placing the limb in 
an eo.y position and applying suitable splints. "Vhen, from 
carelessness of the patient or uneasiness oa his part, the 
broken bone is hot kept in a state of repose, nature attempts 
to fix the part by v»uring out a more copious quantity of 
plasma. This extra material, iallus, as it is called, makes the 
bone at the set of fracture much larger. In rime, however, 
this will be absorbed. 
8. Effects of Alcohol on Growth of Bone.--First 
amongst the signs of the evil effects of alcohol, when taken to 

excess, is a lack of physical development. In many cases the 
li¢luor habit dates from childhood. Continuing in this habit, 
the child's growth is frequently slow and imperfect, and he 
reaches manhood small in stature and stunted in body and 
In France, amongst the peasants regularly drafted for the 
army, it is noticed that those who drink from childhood fall 
below the military standard, while those who do hot drink 
develop normally. Xt is observed that rejections from mili- 
tary service increase as drunkenness increases. 
9. Effects of/lcohol on Broken Bone.--A fracture 
seldom heals as rapidly and as firraly in a drunkard as in a 
sober person. :Nature tries to do ber work as faithfully in 
the one as in the other ; but in the one case she has healthy 
material to build from, and is not likely to faih In the 
other case, the material is posoned with alcohol ; perhaps 
the general system is in an irritable condition or is greatly 
reduced, and it is not surprsing that a faulty union some- 
rimes takes place. The c«,ntinued uneasiness met with in 
cases of delirium tremens, and in inebriates generally, is suffi- 
cient to overcome ail effi»rts of nature to keep the broken 
ends of b«»ne steady and in close contact. As a result, union 
is often very rnuch delayed, and when if does take place if 
will very likely be faulty. This is not ail. Union som 
times fails to take place; further operation becomes necessary, 
the patient runs down rapidly, and the result is often most 
The careful surgeon now recognizes the necessity for re- 
stricting the use of stimulants in cases of fractured bone 
especially in persons of full habit. A m«lerate diet, with- 
out stimulants, promotes a restful condition of the system, 
and avoids disturbances of digestion -hich are apt to arise 
from want of exercise. 

Tr Bo,s. 2I 


FIo. 5.The Skull. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, bones of the skull proper; 6, upper jaw; 
7, cheek boe ; 8, ]achrymal bone ; 9, naal bone ; 10, ]ower jw. 

10. The Skull.--The bones of the skull are so corrstructed 
as to make an admirable case f0»r enclosing the brain. It also 
lodges and protects the organs of speclal sense, namely, sight, 
smell, faste and ]earing. When the head receives a severe 
blow, unless it is very direct, the rounded shape causes the 
weapon to glance off without injury to the brain itself. Even 
a bullet may be turned from its course, and pass around the 
skull without penetrating the bone. esides being round, 
the skull affords a further protection to the brain by being 
ruade up of an outer and inner table of hard, firm bone, 
closely united by a spong T layer. In the more exposed parts 
these plates are thickened and the outer layer is consideraby 
separated from the inner, so that blows severe enough to 
break the outer may hot injure the inner or disturb the brain_ 
The spongy packing also helps to deaden the blow. 


In infancy, the skull is made up of several distinc bones. 
The child, vhen learning to walk, stumbles about and bumps 
his head ithou doing serious barre, the bones being more 
e|astlc and freer to move. As the brain enlarges» these bones 
grow0 and vhen fully formed they are dovetailed into each 

Fro. .--The Spire. 

other, something after the manner in which 
a carpenter joins his pieces in making a 
box. The only tmne which remains separate 
is the lower jaw. 
There are a number of small openings in 
the skull for the passage of nerves and res- 
sels. There is one large one af the under 
part or base of the skull, through which 
the spinal cord is connected with the braira 
11. The Bones of the Trunk.--In 
classifying the bones, xve mentioned one 
belonng to the trunk, called the ]yoid. 
This is a small bone shaped like a much 
bent bow with the arch in front, and placed 
high up in the neck, to support the tongue 
and give a firm point of attachment to it 
numerous muscles. In addition to this bone 
the trunk comprises the bones of the spine, 
the ribs, the breastbone, and two very irreg- 
ular bones which extend forward from the 
base of the spinal column, spreading out on 
the sides to form the hips, and meeting 
again in the front of the body. They form, 
with the spine, a complete basin, called the 
pelvls. On the lower and under surface of 
the hip bone is a deep socket, for the head 
of the large bone of tbe thigh. 
12. The Spine.--Of all the wonderful 
arrangement of bonea in the humaa frame, 

that of the spine is the most striking. If is firm, and yet 
elastic. It is capable of carrying a great weight, and yet 
easily bent in any direction. It is ruade up of a number of 
separate bones, and yet in ifs centre there is formed a perfect 
canal tbruughout nearly its 'hole length, just as a continuous 
canal is formed by placing a number of spools evenly one 
upon another. The main portion of the spine consists of 
twenty-four separate and distinct pieces, and these resç upon 
one large solid mass of bone called tbe sacrun. In early 
life, the rive bones which furm the sacrum are separate so 
also are the four small bones beneath these, which in adult 
life unite and form one bone. In infancy there are, there- 
fore, thirty-three bones in the spine, and in the adult only 
The individual bone is called a vertebra, hence the whole 
is sometimes called the vertebral cohmn. Each separate 
vertebra consists of a solid piece of bone called the ody, 
and projections (processes) running outwards and backwards. 
Those running backwards inclinë towards each other and soon 
unite, so as to form the canal for the spinal cord. It then 
continues backwards for varying lengths at different parts of 
the spine, and is cglled the spinots process. This is why the 
vertebral column is sometimes called the sFine. These are 
the various projections of bone we feel immediately under the 
skin, from the back of the nêck downwards. The other pr 
jections run out sidewise, and are for attachment of long, 
slender muscles fo strenhen the whole column, very much 
in the saine way as ropes strengthen and support the toasts 
of a ship. 
The bodies of the vertebroe are placed one upon another, 
with a layer of elastic cartilage between, as bricks are placed 
one above another, with mortar between. They are hot 
cemented firmly together, as is tbe case in a brick wall ; the 
cartilage, being elastic like rubber, allows the bones to bend 


upon each other in all directions. If ve keep the spine bent 
a long time, these cushions vill hot readily resume their 
proper chape, and in this vay people become stooped, espe- 
cially in old age, hen the cartilage is less elastic. In a 
young person it is suciently yielding fo make nearly an 
inch di/Yerence in the height between rising in the morning 
and ai |Jedtime, after standing upright ail day. 
A side view of the spinal column shows it to be curved. 
In the neck it bends a little forward. Just below this it is 
bowed backwards. This increases the capacity of the chest. 
Then })ending forward, it affords an advantageous resting- 
place îor important organs in the abdomen, and gives behind 
favorable points of attachment to large muscles extending to 
the legs. The large wedge-shaped part of the spiue, filling in 
the space between the hip bones behind, foms a well-marked 
curve backward and then forward, and secures a perfect 
resting-place for the organs contalned within. This double 
cur'ing of the spine tends also to disperse the force of a fall. 
These gentle curves bave besides the effect of gi-ing to the 
body a pleasing and graceful outline, but if they are much 
increased it becomes a deformity. In rickets, for example, 
the bones of the spine are softened. The weight of the body, 
especially i the child is kept standing a great deal, presses 
the sof bones closer together in front, and increasez the 
curve a the back. 
The various bones of the spinal column fit so nicely into 
each other, and are bound together so firmly by strong ligoe 
ments, tha fractures and dislocations are very ra,'e. ŒEhe 
head moves freely backward and forward as it rocks upon the 
first bone of the spine. It turns from side to side around 
a pivot in the second bone, carrying vith it the first. We 
bend the spine in some cases almost double, as may be seen 
in the performances of an ath]ete, and yet there is no dis- 
placement nor injury to the delicate cord within. 


13. The Walls of the Thorax.--The cavity of the 
chest contains the heart, lungs, and larger blood-vessels. It 
is cone-shaped, with the apex at the top. The walls condst 
of bone, muscle and elastic cartilage. Behind is tb.e strong 
spinal columm In front, extending from the neck to the ivt 
of the stomach, is the breast bone, or sternum. The floor 
or base of the cone is formed by a broad, fiat muscle, the 
diapragm , which stretches across the body, and divides the 
thoracic or chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. 

14. The Ribs.--The 
greater portion of the chest 
walls is formed by the rlbs. 
They are twenty-four in 
number, twe|ve on each 
side. They do not lie close 
to one another, the space 
between being occupied by 
muscles running obliquely 
to and fro. These mus- 
cles assist in expanding the 
chest. The ribs are firmly 
attached behind to the spi- 
nal columu. They curve 
forward, and are joined to 
the sternum by elastic car- 
tilage. Those ai the top 

FlOo 7.--le libs and Sternum. 

are short, with a greater curve ; at the middle of the chest 
the ribs are long and bowed. The two lower ribs on each 
side bave no attachment in front, and are hence called the 
floating ribs. The great function of the chest walls, after 
giving protection to important organs within, is to expand 
and contract, thus increasing and diminishing the capacity 
of the chest, and thereby carrying on the lire-long process 
of breathin6. The variation of space in the cavity is effected 


noç ordy by the ribs and the rib (teroestal) muscles, but 
by the diaphragm, which, in contreting, extends the cnvity 
downwards. In of the upper portion of the wMls of 
the chesç nog aeting, as in tight laeing--n habig se much 
indulged in by gle ldy of the period, thag the chesg is 
even smaIlest vhere ig should be the largest-the diaphragrn 
descends and crowds the organs low down into the pelvis. 
Such persons are doing themselves a double injurT. In the 
first place, tight lacing is productive of small, weak lungs; 
and secondly, the lower organs in tho abdomen are so 
i,ressed up«»n that they perf,»rm their functions with diflï- 
culty, and are often in a constant state of congestion from 
want of freedom in the return of tho blood to the heart. 
15. The Walls of the Abdomen.--The lower portion of 
the trur& is bounded abovo by the diaphragm, the partition 
 hich separates the trunk space into two cavities : below by 
tho pelis, behind by the spine, and in front by a muscular 
wall. Tho floating ribs occupy a small portion of this spaco 
aVthe top and on each side. Tho bony protection to the 
contents of the ca ity is limited in front, excepting when the 
body is bent forward. The gréater par of tho fnt wall 
is ruade up of fiat tendons and muscles, in order that wo 
may haro more freedom in bending. .If tho ribs oxtended 
down to meet tho bones below, we should be ver T stiff 
and rid in our movements. We would be obliged to sit 
or stand, like the warriors of old when they donned their 
steel coats of armor. 
Tho cavity of tho abdomen contains the liver, stomach, 
intestines, kidneya and other organs. 
16. The Upper Extremities.--The arms are so placed 
at tho upper and outer part of the chest as to givo them an 
extensive sweep over the body. The arm is tho member 
above all others which contributes to man's welfaro, suppliea 
tho anta of hia body, gives him  means of defenco, and by 

which he performs many of the duties of lire. By this ruera- 
ber the blacksmith wields [is heavy hammer, to fashion with 
precision the piece of iron ; and by it the musician, with 
exquisite skill, produces upon his instrument the fmest and 
loftiest notes of melody. 
17. The Scapula and Clavicle.oEhe arm is attached 
to the body by a fiat, triangular bone, the scapula or shoulder 
blade, which iests upon the ribs on the back part of the 
thorax, and is held to the side by a layer of muscles, thus 
giving freedom of motion to the whole shoulder. The apex of 
the scapula is marked by a pear-shaled concaty, which 
forms with the upper end of the arm bone the shoulder joint. 
This joint inchnes somewhat forward, and is retained in posi- 
tion by an fshaped bone, the clavicle, or collar bone, which 
extends from the shoulder blade inward to the breast bone, 
and is easily seen on the uncovered neck. 
18. Number of Bones in the Upper Extremity.--In 
addition to the bones which attach the upper extremity to 
the body, the arm bas thirty bones; one in the upper arm, 
called the ltumerus ; two in the fofearm, the ulna and radius, 
lying side by side ; eight in the wrist, the carlrus; rive bones 
form the hand, the vetacarpus; and fourteen make up the 
thumb and fingers, the pltalaes. 
19. The Shoulder.--At the shoulder we have a good 
example of what is called a ball and socket joint, and the 
degree of motion is here mhch greater than in any other part 
of the body. Almost every inch of the surface of the body 
can be reached by the fingers. To permit of such free motion, 
the socket of this joint is quite shallow, and its articulating 
surface limited, while the rounded head of the humerus bas a 
large articulating surface. Dislocations more frequently take 
place in this joint than elsewhere, notwithstanding the pro- 
vision existing to keep  in place by ligaments and muscles. 


This is due to the shallowness of the joint, fo ira exposed 
position, and to the varied functions of the arm. 
20. The Elbow.--The elbow presents the best instance 
of the forward and baekward movements of a hinge. If is 
formed by the lower end of the humerus and the upper ends 
of the ulna and radins. The arm bone ai its l«Jwer extremity 
is wide and fiat, while at its very end is a rounded, smooth 
surface, whieh fits into a deep noteh in the ulna. The radius 
is quite small at this end, and forms very little of the elbow 
joint. With its smooth head it rolls against the side of the 
ulna as we turn the paire of the hand upward or downward. " 

Fie. 8.--The Wrist Joint. 

21. The Wrist.--When we conte to the wrist, we find the 
relative size of the two bones is changed, ttere the uhaa is 
quite small, and rolls in a similar way agaist the side of the 
radius when the hand is turned. The end of the radius ]s 
sufficiently large to form the whole upper surface of the wrist 
joint. The bones of the wrist are small and mostly wedge- 
shaped. They are arranged in two rows of four bones each, 
and are so placed as to forma gentle curve when the wrist is 
bent, giq_ng it a graceful outline, instead of a sharp angle, as 
in the ordinarv hinge joint. 
22. The Hand.--In the hand, including the thumb and 
fmgers, we see displayed the most perfect and ¢omplete mech- 

zz sozs. S9 

anism, lts wonders have been the subject of frequent admir- 
ation, hot only of the antomist, but ,s wel! of many writers 
and students in the higher walks of llterature and art. In a 
thousand ways the hand, in the daily course of life, serres the 
body with cluickness and precision; now with the delicate 
touch of educated skill, then with the bold unerring stroke ; 
now to bring fo its use al] that contributes to man's comfort 
and welfare, then to put away whatever may be dangerous 
or offensive to the body ; now to grasp the weapon of defence 
or warfre» then tobe reared a]oft in mute adoration or in 

Fro. 9.--The Pones of the Hand and the Wrist. 

inexpressible despair. The hand in itself is a harp of a 
thotsand strings. 
23. The Metacarpal Bones.--Four of these bones lie 
paraIIeI, and form the framework upon which we have in 
front the Talm of the hand. The fifh stands out slightly, to 
form the thumb. It has a much freer movement than the 
others, and is covered with atascles , forming the ball of the 
thumb. » I 
24. The Phalangçs.--Thè bones of the thumb, two in 
number, and those of the fingers, three to each, are called the 
phalanges. The forefintt.fl ira free position and relation- 


ship with the thumb, is the most useful and important of the 
fingers. The fingers are of unequal lengths. The longest 
called the middle finger ; the next in length is the ring finger, 
which is only slightly longer than the fo»re or index finger 
while the little finger is the shortest. X(hen the fingers are 
flexed to form the fist, the tips are almost on an even line. 
The number of hinge joints in the fingers, together with the 
additional side motion in the joints which attach the fmgers 
to the hand, gives great freedom of motion to this member. 
25. The Lower Extremities. 'hile the lower limbs 
bave hot, the many uses of the upper, they perform the 
distingushing functiotrs of sustainlng the b«ly in the erect 
position, and of moing it from place to place at the com- 
mand of the will. 
26. Number of Bones in the Lower lExtrernities.-- 
In each lower extremity there are thirty bones. In the thigh 
there is one bone, the fernur ; one in front of the knee joint, 
called the knee cap, knee pan, or patella; two in the 
corresponding to the two in the forearm, and named te 
tibia and fibula ; seven in the arrkle, the garsal bones ; rive 
in the instep, the metatarsal, and fourteen in the toes the 
27. The lernur.--The thigh bone is the longest and 
strongt ne in the b«ly. The shaft of this bone is round, 
like the handle of a club, and inclines tuwards its fellow at 
the knee. It is crowned at the Uloper end by a head and 
neck. The neck forms an angle with the shaft like the turn 
on a walkingane, so as to bring the head into the deep 
socket in the pelic bone. The upper half of this ball-like 
head is covered with cartilage, and fits accurately into the 
socket, forming a ball and socket joint, much like the one at 
the shoulder, but deeper and stronger, though more limited 
in its movements. The head of the bone is held in place 
by strong ligaments attached around the neck. It is also 


steadied or swung in the cavity by a strong ligament running 
up from the base of the cavity to the summit of the head, 
which holds it in place, and prevents jars and dislocations. 
Some of the muscles, also, which move the thigh bone pass 
over this joint, and help to keep it in place. 
28. The Knee.--The lower end of the thigh bone is so 
large as really to suggest the idea of a war-club. Indeed, 
some savage tribes use the thigh bone as a weapon of war. 

Fio. lO.--The Mechanism of the ilip Joint. 

The large end of this bone rests upon the broad, fiat end of 
the shin bone, forming the knee joint. This hinge joint is 
protected in front by a fiat three-sided bone, the patella, or 
knee-pan. Although the knee is eatly exposed, the broad 
joint surface, with its strong ligaments and tendons, enables 
it .to resist violence, and disloca' 1. n frequently 
happen. Indeed, fracture of one of'e 31e. mlikel2 " 


29. The Ankle.--This is also a hinge joint, and is formed 
by the lower ends of the two bones of the leg clasping be- 
tween them, as sugar-tongs clasp a pieee of sugar, the highest 
bone of the arch of the foot. The larger of the two leg bones 
is clled the tib, or shin bone. It has a sharp border down 
the front, which, being eovered only by skin, is very sensitive 
to the touch, as every ehild knows who bruises his shins. 

Flo. ll.--The Bones of the Foot and the Ankl 

Lower down, this bone forms the irmer ankle bone. The 
fibula, or splint bone, is a long, slender bone lying along 
the outside of the leg, and ends below in what is oelled thv 
outer ankle. 
30. The Foot.--While there are eight carpal bones at the 
wrist, there are but seven bones at the ankle, called the tarsal 
bones. They are very irregular, and vary much in size, the 


largest being the heel bone. As in the hand there are rive 
metacarpal bones, so in the foot there are rive metatarsal 
bones. They lie side by side, the inner one hot being separ- 
ated, as in the hand. 
31. The Toes.oEhere are two phalanges in the great toe 
and three in each of the others, as in the hand, bub they are 
smaller in size and more limited in their movements. It 
astonishes us sometimes, however, to see the extent of motion 
training will give fo the toes. People born without arms, 
or who have lost them by accident, have been taught to 
carve, write, and even to paint with their toes. The bones of 
the foot» as a whole» are less movable than those of the hand. 
In its construction the foot is better aàapted for bearing the 
weight of the body than for varied movements. If a straight 
line be drawn from the lowest point of the heel bone to the 
ball of the great toe, it wil! be seen that a bony arch is 
formed, the top of which supports the body. It is by this 
arrangement we secure in walking the light, springy step, 
whfle in running, leaping or jumping, this elastic curved 
spring prevents any jarring of the body, and by the help of 
the many cushions, pads and ligamënts we bave already 
alluded to, carries the brain at the smnmit of this bodily 
structure almoat without a tremor. 
In animals whose habit of life it is to bound after their 
prey, in addition to this arching of the foot, there is placed 
under each toe a sort cushion or pad, to further break the 
shock they would otherwise receive. Examine the cat's paw. 
You will find it a good example of what we have mentloned 
32. The Joints.--We have mentioned a number of the 
joints, and shown how necessary they are for the many more- 
ments of the body, and for the performance of the various 
duties man bas to fulfil. We have noticed also that they 
vary in their extent of motion, according to the use for which 


they are intended. Some joints allow of moti-n in every 
direction, fr example, the shoulder joint; othera hve only 
a toeand-fro motion, like the elbow; whle others again bave 
butlittle motion as, for 

1o. 12.--The 1Right Knee Joint, showing how 
flrmly it la bound about by ligamentS. 
cluantity of fluid, the syno- 
»a, secreted by the membrane. This fluid lubricates the 
joint, like oil in machinery, and promoea free raotion with- 
out friction. Outslde this is a strong cap, holding the bones 
together. There are also extra bands, lile bands of ribbon, 
stretching from one bone to another. Still outside al] this 

instance, the slight move- 
ment of each indiSdual 
spine upon its next neigh- 
bor. Let us examine the 
construction of a joint. 
Fig. 12 represents the 
knee after tho skin and 
fat have been removed. 
The ends of the bones 
coming together fo form a 
joint are covered with car- 
tilage, more or less elastic, 
according to its thickness. 
This acts, in a measure, 
like a buffer, to arrest jars 
in jumping or in falling. 
The cartilage, in turn, is 
covered by a smooth lining, 
the synovial »enbrane, 
which is folded over the 
inner surface of the joint 
from one bone fo the other, 
and forms a closed sac. 
ïthin the sac is a smal] 

are the tendons of the muscles which move the limb, and 
filling in and rounding off the j«»int there is always a certain 
amount of cellular tissue and fat. Last of ail, the skin. 
33. Care of the Body.--The degree of perfection with 
which growth and developmcnt from infancy to mature age 
take place, depends upon the care and attention the child 
receives. The infant is helpless. If is unable to walk. Its 
head Lu out of proportion to the rest of the body, its sphaal 
column is almost straight, and its legs are relatively short. 
Soort it creeps about on ail-fours, and gradually, as growth 
proceeds, changes of a distin&mishing kind take place, and 
when adult age is reached, the full-grown man walks with his 
head everdy balanced on the spinal column, supp»rted only by 
his lower limbs, while these in turn rest upon the arched 
instep and bro,t soles of the feet. 
uring infancy, suitable food must be provided, to enable 
nature to convert the gristly framework into b,me. For this 
purIose milk alone is sufficient for many months. In child- 
hood some restraint will be necessary, to avoid the taking of 
those things which tend to poison the system and stunt the 
growth of the b«xty. 
The waking hours of a child, when in health, are spent in 
constant motion of body and limb. Ths exercise is necessary 
to promote the growth of bone and muscle. Etlually neces- 
sary are the long periods of sleep the healthy child will take 
daily, in order that the brain may rest and deVelop. As the 
child gains power over its legs, it will begin its efforts to 
stand and walk ; but it should hot be helped or encouraged 
to do so too early. It should be allowed to "find its legs," 
and hot be put upon them before they are strong enough to 
bear the weight of the body. Like a green twig, the sort 
bones of the leg may bend, and cause "bow legs," so often 
met with. Children should also be watched in their habits 
of sitting. When weary, they may slide down into the seat, 

or incline t one side or the other, or bend over to much 
'hen re'ling, vriting, or at other vork. Round shoulClers 
and curved sl0ines are to frequenly he outome oî children 

Fo. 13.--Adjustble 8eat and Desk, the latter with slidivg top. 

being allowed to fall into such positions as these. Very often 
it is owing to faulty desks. If a desk is too low, it causes a 
forward stoop. If too high, the shoulder is likely to be too 

TH SONS. 37 

much elevated, causing a side curve fo the spine. Desks 
should be regulated according to the size of the pupil. The 
teacher should remember that the school period is also the 
growing period of a child's lire, and make frequent changes in 
the seating of hi pupils. These changes can be most readily 
made by having aAjustable seats and desks, as in Fig. 13. 
The seat M and desk RE are each supported on a sliding 
pin F, which works in a sockeç G. The seat and desk can 
thus be raised or lowered, according to the size of the pupil, 
and may be fixed at any height by the set screw 1I. The 
footrest I may be raised or lowered in a similar manner. 
The tp of the desk is attached to the moral,le rest C, the 
hinge at D all«»wing the desk to slide f,»rward to A, and 
giving the child r«¢m to stand iramediately in front of his 
It is astonishing how easily the sort and gristly bones of a 
child bend, and even grow out of place. Long continued 
strain or pressure is sure to ha'e this effect. We have ail 
heard how Chinese women bind the feet of the baby girl 
with strong bands, to prevent them from growing. These 
poor girls, when grown into women, are not al»le to more 
about with ease and comf«»rt. This foolish custom is common 
in China, because it is thought low-bred for women to be 

useful and have natural feet. 
Let us compare this ith what 
we see daily amongst our own peo- 
ple. Is it not equally as incon- 
sistent for us to wear tight and 
high-heeled boots and shoes because 
it is the fashion ] They throw the 
weight of the body forward, and 
force the foot down on the toes. 
This has the tendency not only to 
crowd the toea out of shape, but 

Fro. 14.--Natural Shape 
the Foot. 

Fro. 15.lDtorttd Ioot. 


to cause corns, bunions, ingrowing nails and swollen joints. 
I also nakes/he n«Ltural gaiç stiff and awkward. Children 
should wear comfortably fitting b«,ots or shoes, with broad 
toes and low, wide heels. 
34. Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on the whole 
Frarnework.--1ndividuals vary ia form and height, accord- 
ing to tl,e shape and ltgth of he various bones. The size of 
the b,My depends upon the size of the frmeworko Iç is hot 
wise o risk out chances to become well developed and maly 
in api,earance , by indulging irt habits thag are injuri,ms while 
y«,ung, leither he drinking of alcohol in any of its many 
f,,rms, nor the using of tobacco in any way, is a manly ac, 
nor d,»es either help in any sense to promote the growth and 
devel,,pmenç of out bodies. 
1ç h;rs often been observed hat children of intemperate 
parents frequenly rail te, deveh,p ino n»anhood or woman- 
h«,,d. They may n,,g be deformed, but their growth is 
arrested, and they remain small in body and infantile in 
character. One physician rep«,rts a child rive years of age, 
who asured oly two feet three inches, and weighed 
twenty-wo I,ounds ; ad he says furthe; tlmç he bas known 
such dfildren to lire o twenty and over, and still remain 
permanenç infants. Such are exomples of a species of degen- 
eracy, and are ex'idences o t.he visiing o the sins o the 
fathers Ul,On the children, which may ex,end even urtto the 
tl,ird a,d f,,urth generati0ms. 




1. The Structure of Muscles.--The lean meat of the 
dead animal, ms seen cut up in a butcher's stall, or when 
cooked and brought on the table for dirmer, is what  e call 
muscle. In a joint or roat of beef there are several muscles. 
Each is surrounded by , delicate, thin membrane. This 
membrane or tissue is loosely attached, and serves to hold 

the muscle together and to separate 
it from neighboring ones. From its 
inner surface this membrane sends 
off partitions, which diide the 
muscle into several bundles. The 
larger bundles are divided into sec- 
ondary ones by a finer membrane, 
and these are again divided into 
fibres. Looked at under the micro- 
scope, it is discovered that even 
these fine fibres are ruade up of a 
number of very fine threads or 
fibrils, and that each fibril is sim- 
ply a row of cells, like a string of 

Flo. 16.--Portions of Muscu]ar 
Fibre highly magnifie¢Z 

fine beads. This gives the fibril a striped appearance. 
2. How Muscles Work.--A muscle has the power of 
contracting and relaxing. Each little fibre,.under nerve in- 
fluence, can be ruade to draw itself together, becoming sho'rter 
and thicker, and this change taking place almost at the same 
rime amongst the thousands of fibres in a muscle, the result is 
that, instead of lying loosely extended along the limb, the 



muscle is drawn up into a large solid lmnp af its middle. 
Now, if one end is firmly attached toa bone, its origin, and 
the other toa strong tendon which passes down to the bone 
below, its insertion, the lower bone ,vill necessarily be dra,vn 
towards the upper. This 

FIO. 17.- Biceps and T¢iceps Muscles. 

may be underst«,od by 
bending the elbow with 
the arm bare. As the 
body of the biceps mus- 
cle swells out and be- 
cornes hard and firm, 
the forearm is drawn 
up. When the nerve 
influence is withdrawn, 
the muscle relaxes and 
lies even]y in its place. 

3. Arrangement of M tlscles.--The muscles are usually 
arranged in groups, and these have opposing groups on the 
opposite side of the ]imb. Take, for examplê, the ]êg. One 
set of muscles bends the knee, so that the leg is flexed upon 
the thigh. These are callêd jTexars. Another set brings the 
leg forward, and extends if out until it s in a line with the 
thigh. These are called extensors. ]t is by this nice oejust- 
ment of opposing systems of muscles hroughout the be]y 
that we are a|»]e to stand erect and to more al»out with ease 
and comf»rt. 
This even action of the many pairs of muscles all over the 
body also maintains its symmetry. If one muscle or group of 
muscles azts more strongly than the opposite, the ]imb is 
twisted. This .is the case in the deformity known as club- 
foot. The foot may be drawn outward by the muscles on the 
outside of the leg acting more strongly than those on the 
inside, or it may be drawn inward if the inner muscles are 
stronger than the outer. In the saine way the spine ma¥ 


be pulled over or curved to one side by the muscles of 
that side overcoming those of the other. Club-foot is a 
deformity st birth, while side curvature of the spine is  ery 
often the result of sitting daily st an unsuitable desk or 
form st school. 
The proper action of the muscle depends upon the nervous 
supply. If the nerve branch to a muscle be injured or dis- 
eased, its action is interfered with, and the proper balancing 
of a certain pair of muscles lost. Squinting of the eyes may 
be caused in this way. If the nerve on one side is divided or 
seriously injured, the muscle is powerless, and a state of 
paralysis exists. F,»r instance, one side of the face may be 
para]yzed when the muscles of the other side, haing no oppoe 
nents to act agaiust them, draw the mouth over to that side, 
and gdve a distorted appearance to the face. 
Deranged mnscular acti«,n may be due to injury or disease 
of the nerve centres. There exists a close sympathy hot 
only between the end nerves and the nere centre, but also 
between different and distant parts of the whole system. 
This is seen in various affections. The irritation of a "cut- 
ring" lx»oth in the infant may cause general convulsions. 
This is reflex or transferred action. The control of the brain 
or spinal cord may be imperfect, and the muscles contract 
irregula'ly. Irtead of the measumd contraction, there is 
the spasmodic action of a group of muscles or of the 'hole 
body. S,»metimes the muscle contracts, and bas not the 
power to relax. If itis in the face, we bave lock-jaw. This 
is a serious and very often fatal affectior, and it is sometimes 
brought about by a very simple injury, such as the prick of a 
pin or a fish-hook in the finger. In chorea, or St. Virus' 
Dance, certain muscles bave ceased fo be obedient to the 
will, and persist in irregular contraction, on account of the 
diseased condition of the nervous system; so likewise in 
shaking palsy. The physician meets with various forma of 


diseuse due toa want of harmonious ction between the 
musculr and ner* ous systems. 
4. Classification of Muscles.--A ver), large number of 
the muscles of the body are wholly under the control of 
the will. These are called voluntary. A certain number ct 
independently of the bill. These are called in:oluntary. As 
instances «»f eacb cbtss, the muscles «,f the extremities are 
volunt«ry, while th,»se which send the f«»d along the aliment 
ary cantl are inv«dunttry. CeoEain muscles partake of the 
character of each kind, as the resId'atory. One may hold 
Lreath for a rime by a v«»luata Tact, but breathing proceeds 
without an), effi»rt of the wfil, partcularly during sleep. 
Although we have no vill-iower over the inv.untary mus- 
cles, yet they are'under the control of the nem ous system. 
The voluntary muscles are also known s striped. They 
are so ngmed fr«»m their appearance under the microscope, 
already p,_»nted out. The involuntary are unstriped, being 
ruade up of slender spindle-shaped cells, which do not appear 
striped under the microscope. They are hot attached to bone. 
These muscles are ruade to act by some stimulus. Food, 
instance, the taking e»f hich into the mouth and chewing 
is voluntary, when it pses  certain point is beyond the 
ontrol of the will. :[t acts as a stimulus to the involuntary 
muscles of the gullet, and is passed along to the stomach by a 
worm-like motiç»n. 
5. The Levers of the Body.--pecial reference toa few 
,,f the v«,luntary muscles will show the principle upon which 
they cause movement e)f a limb. The movement is accom- 
plished by leverage. There is a weight to be moved, afulcrum 
for the lever, and the application of the power. The limb or 
bone is the weight, the joint is the fulcrum, the power is in 
the muscle. 
The lever of the first kind, where the fulcrum is between 
the weight and tlae power, is hot common, but is seen in the 


nodding of the head, the fulcrum being af the articulation of 
the skull with the first vertebra. The second kind of lever, 
where the weight £s between the power and the fulcrum, is 
also uncommon in the body. An instance of this is seen 
when the body stands on the toes. In this case the fulcrum 
is af the point where the front of the f,,ot tests ui, on the 
ground, the body forms the weight, and the large muscles of 
the calf of the let constitute the power. In assuming this 
position the calf of the leg becomes hard and firm. The third 
kind of let'er, where the power is between the fulcrum and 
the weight, largely prevails in the human body. In this f,rm 
of lever the power is applied af a disadvantage, but {tis the 
only kind suitable with a-view to economy of space and com- 
pactness of body. This variety of lever is well shown in the 
flexion of joints. The bending of the elbow is by the action 
of the biceps, which is atthed ab, ve by two heads to the 
scapula, and below to the radius, a short distance fr,,m its 
head. The forearm and hand are the weight, which is in- 
creased by any object the hand may hold. The fulcrum is 
the elbow joint. 
In walking, rowing and swimming most of the voluntary 
muscles are af work, and with healthy, properly developed 
muscles we see exhibited the perfection of notion, power 
and grace. 
6. Tendons.--The strong, flexible, inela.stic cords or bands 
which we see playing along the back of the hand when we 
move the fingers, are called tendons. Fullow them up the 
limb, and we find they each belong to a muscle. In fact, 
each tendon in the body is a sort of rope, by which the 
muscle pulls upon the part it is intended to more. Itis an 
arrangement by which muscles can be placed in unexposed 
positions and nicely grouped, so as to give symmetry to the 
limb. These cords take up less room in the hands and fm- 
gers, for instance and do away with the bulky appearance 


muscles would give. In pazsing over exposed parts and over 
j«»ints the tendons occupy less space, and are less sensitive te 

pain when pressed upon. 

Fie. 18.--The 5Iuscles and Tendons of the Hand. 

The tendons vary in length, in size and in strength, accord- 
ing te the work they have te de. The longest and strongest 
tendon in the body is the one by which the large muscles of 
the calf of the leg draw upon the heel. Stand upon the toc% 
and this tendon tan be distinct]y felt above the heel. It is 
called the tendon of Aehilles. The large muscles at the back 
part of the tbigh are attached by tendons Ix) the bones of the 
leg. These stand out when we flex the knee. They ferre the 
hamstrings. The tendons of the hand and those of the foot 
can be very distinctly seen as we more the fingers or toes. 
The tendon of the biceps can be easily felt in front of the 
elbow. Seine muscles have very short tendons. The large 
triangular muscle fitting over the shoulder, and called the 
deltoid, is attached by a short tendon to the arm bone. 


Occasionally, instead of having a long tendon, the muscle 
itself is long. The tailor muscle, as it is sometimes called, 
extends from the upper part of the hip bone to the inner 
surface of the knee. This is the longest muscle in the body. 
7. Cave of Muscles.--At ail periods of life the well- 
being of the muscular system is most impol%ant. To secure 
healthy development of muscles the body generally should 
be in a state of health. The blood supplied to the muscles 
nmst possess the properties necessary for growth and repair, 
and the products of wear and tear must be promptly removed. 
Close attention should, therefore, be given to f«,od and drirrk. 
Equally important are pure air and pro,per exercse. When 
the athlete Ls under a course of training, strict dietary rules 
are observed, and temperance in both food and drirk is 
practised. Perhaps no better argument to show that alco- 
holic drinks are injurious is afforded, than the fact that 
persons training for contests of muscular strengh aKsolutely 
abstain from all such beverages. 
Without exercise the muscle will hot only cease to develop, 
but it will degenerate, and tïnally nearly ail ifs e]ements wi]l 
be absorbed. We see this waste of muscle, and consequent 
loss of stren4h, in an arm that has been carried for weeks in 
a sling, owing fo a fracture of one of the bones. This change 
is even more marked in a paralyzed liml), where power over 
the muscle is absolutely lost. For a rime the muscle retains 
ifs natural size and condition. Gradua]]); however, it under- 
goes changes, and in time it wastes away, until the limb is 
almost « skin and bone. » 
The incessanb action of the little child while awake is 
intended to promote the development of muscle. By this 
constant movement of its limbs it acquires the power to 
carry objects to its mouth, and then to creep, and finally to 
walk. The child should be dressed with a view to the great- 
est freedom of motion, and every opportunity afforded for 


daily exercise in the open air. This daily exercise sh«,uld be 
kept up during the whole period of youth from childhood to 
maturity, and unless the chi]d is tstrained or kept too closely 
confmed in the school-room, its naturel inclination is towards 
actity «,f limb. Itis possible for a child, however, to go 
beyond the b,mnds of healthy exercise. It may ho too violent 
or kei»t up too long for its strength. XVhe 
so tired from play that he does nob want any supper, and 
scizes the earliest opp«rttmity to steal off to his bed, that boy 
bas d,,ne more harrn than gd by exercise. 
ter maturity there are degrees of healthy development. 
A limited amouat of exercise, such as is necessary in going 
al»rot the daily duties of lire, ill keep the muscles he«dthy 
and in  condition to furnish  moderate degree of strength. 
Tire c«rcful and constant training of the athlete, on the other 
hand, will geatly increase the size of his muscles and give 
hin power to perform almost miraculous feats of strength. 
Lcz, k how the daily vigorous exercise of some particul.r re[dn 
of the muscular system will develop that region- The power- 
ful right aan of the blaclsmith is the production of a constant 
wie]ding of the hea y hammer. 
8. Effects of Alcohol. 'e have already referred to the 
fact that those who wish to attain to the greatest perfection 
of muscular strenh and agility lnow that they must abstain 
entirely from alcoholic liquors. Alcohol lessens muscular 
strength exactly in proportion to the amount takerL For 
very brief period after taking a glass of liquor there may be 
 sllght increase in muscular force, but so soon as sufficient 
lcohol is taken to show its constitutional effects, muscular 
force begins to rail ; and as 
taken, the muscles become more nd more helpless, and 
lacet the inebriated man sinks beneath the table, an exemple 
of the complete triumph of alcohol over muscular power. 
It now remailm for us to peak of cert,uin changes which 


take place in muscular tissue from the use of alcohol. We 
bave observed that if a muscle is hot exercised it will gradu- 
ally lose ifs natural character, and if hot used at ail it will 
finally lose its power fo contract. Another important change 
xvhich now and then occurs is a gradual alteration by which 
oily marrer finds a place ix the fibres of the muscle. The 
muscle loses the power to contract, bccomes soft and flabby, 
and is esily torn across. This disease most commonly affects 
the heart, and is known as fatty degeneration. It /s only 
one of the nany evil effects of alcoholic drinks. The daily 
and oftrepeated use of 5eer is likely to cause this disease, 
especially when little or no exercise is taken. 
9. Action of Alcohol and Tobacco on Muscular 
Sense.--The sensation by which we know the position of our 
limbs, also the force and the extent to which they have been 
moved, is called muscular sense. We use this sense in judging 
of weights. ]3y experience we know how much force to use 
fo lift an object, or how .to balance ourselves against an out- 
side force. In walking we throw ourselves forward, and to 
prevent falling we carry one leg in front of the other. From 
constant habit we do this without thought, hIuscular sense 
enables us to do so. The muscles are educated. But this 
training, this edueation, is ail upset byjndulgence in alcohol. 
The fingers rail to do xvork they bave been trained to do 
almost without mind influence. The voice fails, and the lips 
and tongue rail to utter words clearly ; even walking, the lif 
long habit, is imperfect, and the drunken man staggers. 
Only in a less degree does tobacco weaken the nerve con- 
trol over muscles, causing unsteadiness of hand, relaxation 
of muscles generally, and want of firmness in gait. 




1. The Covering of the Body.--The body is everywhere 
covered and protected by the skin. It varies in thicknesa, 
according to the use of the part. It is also loose in some 
places and close-fitting in others. In the fingers and palms 
it fits snugly. The scalp, or skin of the head, is quite loose. 
This makes it a better protection to the brain, for a blow that 
might break the skull sometimes glides off without further 
injury than carrying a portion of the scalp 'ith it. 
2. The l:-pidermis.--There are two layers of skin. The 
outer, called the scmfskin, cuticle or elolder»is , serves as a 
covering to the second layer, the truc skin. The epidermis 
protects the delicate little blood-vessels and the net-work of 
sensitive nerves which form a large part of the truc skln. 
The sense of touch, which belongs to the truc skin, is only 
bearable when the sensation to the nerve is ruade through 
the outer coat. Strip off this outer covering, and the part 
is sensitive to pain rather than to touch. The two layers 
OEre hot easily separated. If we receive a burn sufficiently 
vere to form a blister, the fluid which collects raises the 
outer from the irmer layer. The outer layer consists of 
a hard, horny-like material, the surface part of which is 
constaatly being detached in thin, fiat scales. Thus the skin 
is all the time weaHng out and being cast off. It does not 
become thinner, however, as this loss is regularly supplied 
from the true skin. I sometimes happens that the outer 
skin is worn off faster than if tan be supplied, and the part 
becomes tender, lut a man aV handling bricks for the first 

rime, and belote the day's work is done ]ils inger-ends are 
worr tender. The rt lgh bricks wear away the epidermis 
faster than the ne supply from the true skin is formed. 
The skin in those parts of the body most inuse, as the 

palm of the hand and sole of the 
fo»t, is thick and hard. In the 
hand of the laborer the laa]m be- 
cornes horny. In the barefooted 
boy the sole of the f(.,t grows thick 
and tough. In ill-fitting boots parts 
of the foot are so pressed upon and 
rubbed that corns aud bunions are 
In the dceper portions of the 
epidermis are minute cells 
taining coloring matter, called pig- 
»ent cells. Tbis c«»l«_,ring matter 
in the white race is e»f a pinki.h 
hue; in the negro itis brown or 
black. The var)ng shades ïrom 
white to black are owing as much 
to the thickness of this layer of 
coloring marrer, as fo the coloring 
matter itsel. The sun's rays affect 
these pi(qnent cells making the 
skn darker. The tanned skin in 
summer is much darker than the 
skin of unexposed parts. The 
habitants of the smmy south are 
darker than those of more northern 

perficlal l'er and, b, deep layer 
oil glan ; e, eat gland ; .t, spiral 
teaiation ol swat duct; , hair 
wch er the hair. 

regions. Sometimes the action of the sun affects the coloring 
marrer in spots, and irec]'les are the result. 
Th¢ Truc Skin.--Beneath the epidermis s the cutis, 
or true s]in. Itis formed of ine elastic tissue. This tissue 


becomes looser and more open in the deeper parts, so hat the 
whole skin can be pinched up from the flesh. Foning a 
part of the true skin are the nerves, blood-vessels and ]ands 
for secreting the sweat and oil. Itis the white fibrous tissue 
forming the body of the true skin, or dermis, in animals, 
whicb is ruade into leather by action of the tannin contained 
in the oak bark used by the tanner. The outer surface of 
the true slcin is marked by small elevated points, the 2apillre. 
These papilloe are 'ell supplied «ith loops of capillaries, and 
they have special nerve endings. They are very numerous ail 
over the body, but are more prominent and more thickly set 
in some parts than in others. On the pahnar surface of the 
hand and fingers9 where the sente of touch is most acute, they 
are very abundant and are arranged in rows. These rows 
are -isible to the naked eye. Vhere these papilloe are most 
densely set, the finest needle cannot penetrate the true skin 
without causing pain n«»r without drag blood. 
4. Glands of the Skin.--There are two kinds of glands 
in the skin, lying deep down in the loose tissue. One is the 
gland for secreting sweat, and the other is the oil gland, 
f,,und in connection with the hair. The sweat gland consists 
of a minute tube coiled up below, and runnig in a zigzag 
manner to the surface of the skin. These glands are round 
in all parts of the body. In some places they are more plen- 
tiful than in others. n the palms of the hands and the soles 
,f the feet they are very thick-ly set. They are more plentiful 
on the forehead than on the cheek. The total number in the 
human body is said to be between two and three millions. 
The most important duty these glands bave to perform is te 
regulate the heat of the body. Heat is carried off from the 
body by the process of evaporation. This evaporation is 
regulated according to the amount of heat the body finds it 
necessary fo get rid of. The sweat poured out on the skin 
evaporates and oools the surface. Perpiration is constantly 

going on, and while the evaporation la equal to the amount of 
fluid poured out the sweat is not seen. This is called insen- 
sible perspiration. When the body becomes heated, and the 
sweat increases so as to f,»rm in drops, itis known as sensible 
persixiration. Under certain nervous influences the skin be- 
cornes bathed in sweat, as in the cold sweat of fear. The 
quantity of sweat poured out varies with the season. In 
hot weather itis much more profuse than in cold. Violent 
exercise increases the flow, so also will too much clothing. 
Sudden changes in the weather, or in the amount of clothing, 
• or sitting in a draught after being heated, are very apt to 
arrest evaporation and cause a chilliness of the body, followcd 
by a "cold" or by "congestion of the lungs." 
Perspiration is a colorless fluid, consisting mostly of water. 
It has a peculiar odor, more marked in some persons than in 
others, and more in some faces of people than in others. 
There is also solid marrer in sweat. Salt can be detected 
by tasting it. The wornut tissues of the body and of the 
skin are f«»und in it ; but these vary very much, according 
to the attention paid to the ski . « , 
5. The Oil Glands.--Besides the sweat glands, there are 
also oil glnds in the skin. These are little sacs found in 
connection with the hairs, and clustering around them, some- 
rimes in pairs, but often as many as from four to eight to 
one hair. Each little sac communicates with the hair by a 
duct, along which the oil flows to the foot of the hair, and 
then finds its way out to the surface «,f the skin. It is 
rmture's dressing for keeping the hair from becoming crisp 
and brittle, and for keeping the skin soft and moist. 
These glands are more numerous on the face and where the 
hair is thick. They are hot usually found vhere there is no 
hair, as on the palm of the hand. It often happens that 
some of these glands get blocked up, forming tmsightly little 


black specks on the face, or they may increase to luite a size 
producing the large lumps sometimes found on the head. 
• OEhe Hair.--The hair and nails are in reality out- 
growths, of the epidermis. The roof of the hair, called çhe 
lmrfollicle, passes obli¢tuely down to the loose cellular tissue. 
It is a portion of the true skin dipping down, forming a little 
hollow, from the botom of 'hich rises a tiny bulb. The cells 
of the epidermis line this hollow, and form around the bulb. 
They are pressed together lenhwise, and being added to 
from this little bulb, they forma slender tube, which pushes 
its way out beyond the surface of the skin. (Fig. 19.) Yery 
small muscles extend from the side of the hair follicles to the 
skin close by. It is the contraction of the minute muscles 
which causes the hair to stand in moments of fear. 
The color of the hair is due to the presence of pigment 
matter, lit is said that the many shades of color in the 
human hair are owing to the mixture of three colors black, 
yellow and red--in different proportions. As age oevances, 
the pinent gralually disappears, leaving the hair white. 
Instances are recorded where, from some strong emotion, the 
hir has lost its color in a single night. This would sho 
that even the hair is under the influence of the nervous sys- 
rem. The welfare of the hair is dependent on the condition 
of the skin. The roots of the hair in a healthy skin will be 
likewise healthy. Pulling out a hair by the root does hot 
prevent its growing again. To stop hairs from growing, as s 
sometimes done where it disfigures a lady's face, it is necessary 
fo destroy the hair bulb. This is a very delicate operation. 
Baldness is a naine applied to the want of hair on the top 
of the head. There are many cause for this loss of hair, but 
perhaps the chief amongst them is the tendency there is in 
some familles to the early loss of vitality in the hair. Wan 
of Iroper care, in allowing the scales from the skin and oil 
from the glands to become crusted on the scalp, is another 

THE srd,. 53 

cause. On the other hand, too much care, in the way of too 
frequent brushing, combing and shampooing, is the reason 
given by some writers on the subject for the early falling 
of the hair. To prevent baldness, keep the head clean, by 
avoiding the use of oil or any of the so-called hair dressings, 
and by thoroughly washing the head occasionally. Have the 
hair cut regularly--say, once a month---and comb or dress it 
twice, or at most three times, a day. Use light coverings. 
7. The Nails.--The horny material forming the nails on 
the fingers and the toes is a development of the epidermis. 
The root of the nail consists of a furrow in the true skin, and 
the cells of the epidermis so arrange themselves in this furrow 
as fo shape the nail and dve if the horny character. The 
body of the nail tests upon the true skin, the 5ed. The 
growth of the nail takes place from the root by constant 
addition of flattened cells, and the thickness is increased by 
similar growth from the bed. The nail is intended to give 
protection to the fingers and toes when in use. A_ nail may 
be torn off and again grow, unless the bed is destroyed. It 
may ow in an irr%,alar manner, from the effect of an 
injury, or more commonly, in the case of the toes, from the 
pressure of tight boots. The free borders of the nail at the 
sides of the toe are turned down by this pressure, and, if 
continued, form the ingrowing nail. 
8. Care of the Skin.--Think of the amount of service 
rendered by the skim It covers the tender flesh ; it r%-m]ates 
the heat of the body by the sweat it poufs out, and smoothes 
and softens its surface with oil ; it assists the lungs and kid- 
neys in carrying off waste material, and it absorbs or takes 
into the system, to a limited extent at least, whatever may be 
ieft long in contact with the body. Knowing ail this, should 
we not look carefully after its welfare 
The scales of the epidermis are constantly falling off, and, 
mixing with the oil, form a sort of crust on the body. 

or dirt is added to this, and the glands get choked up, and 
are no longer free to do their duty. The work that belongs 
to the skin falls fo the lungs or kidneys, and overtaxes them, 
and thus the health is interfered with. Cleanliness of the 
skin is, therefore, a matter of the first importance. 
In health nature will do her work, but the indixidual should 
do his. Regular daily washing of the skin is necessary. To 
omit washing the hands and face is to neglect the first 
principles of cleanliness and decency. It would be a great 
advance in good breeding if a rule to wash daily the whole 
body ere observed. The hands and face, being exposed, are 
apt to get dirty, and require more fre«tuent attention than the 
unexposed parts of the body. Often, too, the hands become 
much soiled from work. In addition to an abundance of 
water for cleansing them, itis necessary to use soap, an 
alkaline substance xshich dissolves oils and fats, and hastens 
the removal of particles of grease and dirt. For the tm- 
exposed parts of the body, water alone, used daily, is suiïl- 
cient, with a good hand-rubbing of the skin after drying, to 
brush away the loose scales «,f epidermis. 
9. iqathing.--Cleanliness of the skin is hot the only object 
in bathing. Ail-important as itis in this respect, it has other 
beneficial effects. A bath ves increased strength and x-igor 
to the xx hole system. On rising in the morning, a plunge 
into a cold bath is to the healthy and robust an inxigorating 
tonic. The less rugged and strong may hot receive the saine 
benefit. They may even be injured by it. Cold water applied 
to the skin causes the bl«oe-vessels to contract, and the body 
becomes pa]lid. Reaction soon follows, with an increased 
redness of the skin and a pleasant glow of warmth. If 
reaction is slow and so feeble as to subside readily, the bath 
is too cold, and should hot be prolonged. The body should 
be quickly dried, and rubbed xigorously with a coarse towel 
until well reddened and all feeling of shivering passes off. 


For all such cases it is better fo begin with a warln bath, 
and day by day make it couler, until such a temperature is 
reached where reaction is prompt and the bath is refreshing. 
The de'ee of coldness that may be safely reached in this way 
will vary with the age and strenech of the btther. Young 
children and old people, unless strong and vigorous and well 
used to it, cannot take a cold bath without SOlne risk. The 
healthy and robust can take a colder bath and endure more 
exposure to cold water than the weakling. 
It would be diflïcult to say how long a person shou]d stay 
in a bath. Age and strength are here also the best guides. 
So long as a prompt reaction, with a pleasant feeling of 
armth, is experienced, the bath has not been too long. This 
s a safe fuie. 'arm baths are never so refreshing as cold, 
and though the warmth tempts us to linger, they should 
never last beyond four or rive minutes. - Young children 
shou]d be given a warm bath two or three hours after their 
morning mea]. Young people and grown persons who, from 
preference or from delicate health, take warm bat]as, should 
always do so just before retil4ng st night. There is little 
risk of taking cold if they go to bed st once. 
lt is hot always convenient, nor even possible, to have baths 
with hot and cold water attachments, such as are found in 
most dwelling-houses in a city, yet it is hot necessary to go 
into a bath to obtain the benefit desired. A tub of water, 
with a sponge and towel, will answer as well, and is always 
available. A daily washing of this kind, followed by brisk 
rubbing, acts as a stimulus, and to some extent fortifies the 
skin against any evil effects of exposure to cold during the day. 
Too frequent bathing is injurious. A general bath every 
morning in the summer, and a cold sponge-bath every morn- 
ing in winter, with a hot bath st night once a week, will 
keep the body clean, promote the action of the skin, and 
strengthen and refresh the whole system. ]l[ore thanthis is 



apt to draw off too much heat from the body and lessen ils 
10. Some Common Skin Affections.--The skin is sul> 
ject to a variety of diseases. Some of them are due to local 
causes, such as the irritation of vegetable or animal poisons. 
The sting of a nettle, the effect «f poison ivy, the sting of a 
bee, or the bite of a nmsquito, are examples of these. Certain 
parasites find in the hair and skin suitable ground for lodg- 
ing. They grow and multiply, and often cause much irrita- 
tion of the skin. They are contagious in the sense that they 
are easily transferred from one child to another. Constant 
care and watchfulness are necessa T to prevent these vile 
little creatures from infecting a school. 
St«q,page of an «»il gland may pr«xluce a pimple. If many 
are affected together, a sort of boil may result . 
The skin may become congested or inflamed from too much 
heat, as in scalds or burns. The hot sun of summer will 
burn and inflame parts «»f the body hot accustomed to being 
exposed toits rays. Jrysipelas (St. Anthony's Fire) is 
an inflammation of the skin, which spreads rapidly and is 
often very se'ere. It is contaous, and should be carefully 
. ] 1. Effects of Alcohol on the Skin.--We will ilnd, 
when we corne to speak of digestion, that a part of the food 
goes to supply the heat of the body. It is a sort of fuel that 
is regularly fed to the system to keep the body warm, just as 
 store is kept going by frsh supplies of coal. In a store 
the amount of 1,eat is regubted by opening and closing of 
draughts and dampers. In the body the heat is kept at a 
coustant staudard by the opening and c]osing of the pores of 
the s]in. The chief duty of the skin is to regulate the heat 
«,f the b«»dy. Does alcohol affect the slin in ny way, so an 
to interfere with the proper discharge of this duty ? 
The first effect of alcohol upon-the skia is to dilate tlao 


small blood-vessels. This allows the warm blood to flow 
towards the surface in increased quantities. The result is a 
flushed appearance of the face and hands, and of the skin 
generally. This flushing causes the body to feel warmer, and 
indeed the surface is warmer. The body heat is brought 
more to the surface, and the sensation leads to the feeling 
that the body is warmer. To "take just a drop to keep out 
the cold" might, if looked at thus far, seem justifiable, and 
the old belief that alcohol warms the body might seem true. 
Let us go a step further. Just as the tire in the stove, 
intended to warm a room, first heats the surface of the store 
and then radiates to the air of the room, so the heat which 
has reached the surface of the body radiates into the atmos- 
phere. It passes off more rapid|y than it should do, and the 
body is actually cooler. Alcohol so affects the nerves of the 
skin that they lose their control over the surface circulation, 
and heat is lost faster than it is supplied. The expeence of 
Arctic explorers, and of people who live in the colder regions 
of Canada and other northern climates, fully bears out this 
statement. A]cohol is now strictly forbidden when great 
exposure to cold is to be encountered. 
By interfering with the surface circulation alcohol also 
interferes with the pmi)er nourishment of the skin. Fre- 
quent use of li¢tuor causes a frequent flushed condition of 
the skin. The blood-vessels in certain localities become per- 
manently dilated. The skin of the face and nose in time 
assumes a dull and blotchy appearance, readily rec%ized as 
the "port-wine nose" or the "brandy nose." Dark brown 
spots appear on the skin in different parts. There is a 
stronger tendency to skin diseases generally in the case of 
those who use alcoholic drinks, and when established, they 
are more chronic and more difficult to manage. 
Tobacco als» affects the skin, giving it a laeculiar dry and 
sallow look, 




a Need for lood.DIt has been explained why the body 
reetuires daily food : in the first place, to build up the body, 
and in the second place: to supply material for renewing the 
tissues, wh]ch are constantly weaing ou.. The arrangement 
provided for converting the various .food stus into blood 
is as perfect h design as we have seen the construction 
of the body to be. An immense tube, beginning at the 
mouth, passes through the body. This tube is not of uniform 
size. In some places it is dilated, while in others it is quite 
narrow. The gullet, for instance, is a narrow tube, wh[le the 
stomach is an expansive sac. This cdirnentary canal, as it is 
called, is lined by a rhin membrane, a continuation of the 
skin. It is seen in the lips, where a sharp line marks the 
boundary between the skin and this reddish rnucous 
brane. Outside the mucous membrane are other layers, wh]ch 
go to form the walls of this canal. The muscular layer, or 
coat, by involuntary action passes the food along the tube. 
Num,eus_blood and /v vessels form a part of the 
walls.These lymphatics are located in the intestinal tube 
for absorbing and conveyin_=nto the system the nutritious 
portions of the digested f_ Ve find along this canal also 
the openin of the ducts of the various glands, which pro- 
vide important fluids to aid in the process of digestion. The 
glands themselres are mostly situated in the walls. Some, 
like the salivary Kland, are place/] at a distance from it. 
That part of the alimentary canal extending from the lips 
to the stomach, may be dirided into the portions forming the 

DmSTO. 59 

.outh, the2ȣa'ynx, or throat, and the gullet, a long, narrow 
tube, passing down through the back part of the thorax Lnd 
piercing the diaphragm, where it dilates to form the stomach. 
"2: The Mouth.--The caty of the mouth h for its 
boundaries the  and chee_ks in front and at the sidea ; 
below, the tongue and lowew ; ,nd above, the palate. 
The pal,te co-'-ts of two portions; the front part, resting 
on the upper jaw, is the ]tard palate, or roof of the mouth. 
It separtes the mouth from the nasal cavity. The back 
part, the so,[ït plate, consists of mucous membrane folded 
upon itself. It is continuous-with the tioor of the nasal 
cavity. The soft palate ,rches downward, and forms a par- 
tition between the mouth and the pharynx. In the middle of 
the lower bouvier «f the soft palate is  prolongation, like an 
in'erted cone, the uvula, often called the palate. 
3. Mastication.--The tiret steps in the process of diges- 
tion are taken in the mouth. The food is ffound up into a 
pulpy mass by the teeth. While this process called mastica- 
tion goes on, the saliva is poured into the mouth and mixes 
with the food. The tongu.e also aids, in a mechanical way, 
by keeping the food between the teeth. 
-. The Teeth.These hard, bone-like structures do hot 
appear until some months after birth. They are arranged in 
two semi-circular rows, the upper and lower teeth. The former 
are firmly planted in the boY-dem of the upper jaw, the latter 
in the ]ower jaw. In infancy, at about the seventh month, 
the front teeth begin to appear. The point of the tooth 
gr,lually pierces the somewhat dense mucous membrane form- 
ing the gum, and one after another is cut, until the child, 
" af two years of a_e, bas twenty teeth. But this set of teeth, 
called the tm..._ry, or mlk set, s short-lived. They are 
all cast off during childhood, and are followed by a new set. 
These also make their appearance gradually. The saine hum- 
ber take the place of the temporary set, and three others are 

oeded at the back part of each side of both jaws, thus making 
in ail t_rty-two teet_h. These are the Term«nent set. They 
begin to take the place of tñe others when the child is six 
and a hall years old, and are hot completed until the wisdom 
teeth are cut. r]:he wisdom teeth appear anywhere between 
the seventeenth and twenty-first year, but are occasional|y 
later. Each tooth bas its foot, er f_.q, the crn, or top of 
çhe tooth, and the neæA', er p«»rtion etween the foot and the 

FOe. 20.--The Adult Teeth: 1, 2, the incisors; 3, canine; 4, 5, bicuspids; 
6, 7, 8, molars. 

The teeth are. divided into four kinds: , cani___s, 
biczspicls and mol'Srs. The ineisors, four in number in each 
jaw, placed in front, are for cutting the food. They bave 
sharp edges. The four canines, two in each jaw, one on 
each side, reseml,le the teeth in cats and dogs, who use them 
for seizing and holding their prey. ext to these, two on 
each side, in both jaws, are the bicuspids, and behind these 
twelve molars or grinders, in lots of three to each correspond- 


ing portion of the jaws. The crown of the molars is large, 
with a broad, uneven surface, intended for gnding the food. 
The first three kinds of teeth have a single root or faug, 
but the bicuspids, being marked by a groove on each side, 
are partially divided into two, hence their name. The molars 
have two, three, and sometimes four fangs. 
5. Structure of a Tooth.--The tooth consists of a hard 
outer portion, the ivory, and the pulp within. The bulk of 
the outer portion, situted next the pulp, is clled the dentine. 
Fro. 21.--Dirm showg how the th fit hto eh other. 

Over this, on the crown, is the ena»sel. Covering the dentine 
of the root is the cernent. Chemically, the dentine is like 
bone tissue, but the tooth is harder than bone. The pulpe is 
composed of connective tissue, with blood-vessels and nerves. 
These enter the tooth through the extremity of the fang. 
The life of the tooth doe not correspond with the life of 
the body. The permanent set be,dns to appear, as we have 
said, when the child is about six and a hall to seven years 
of age. 1)rior to this the crown has been formed, and the 


growing tooth presses against the milk tooth, loosening and 
crowding if up, until if finally drops out. Sometimes the 
milk teeth remain firm in their sockets, and if hot removed 
the comigg teeth vill be pressed aside, causing unsightly 
6. Care 5f the Teeth.--When a permanent tooth is 
removed, another does not corne in its pbLce. Constant atten- 
tion is necessary to preserve the teeth from decay. The prin- 
cipal source of danger is from partieles of food getting 1,dged 
between them. If allowed to remain, the f,»od decomposes, 
and destroys the enamel, causing ulceration around the body 
of the tooh. To prevent this, the tooth-brush should bc used 
«lil)', and all food removed from between the teeth. Vhcn 
carefully atteuded txj in this way, tooth powder and severe 
scouring of the teeth are not necessary. In fact, the enamel 
may be injured by too much intefference. 
A deposit from the saliva, called tartar, often forms arounJ 
the root of the tooth. This should be removed, or it may 
extend toward the robot and loosen the tooth; or decomposing, 
it may injure or discolor the enamel. It is very often the 
decomposition of the tartar, or of bits of food, which &dves 
rse to f«,ulness of breÇth. Decay of the tooth may arise 
from injury te» the enamel by biting substances too hard for 
the teeth, such as bending a pin or cracking nuts. The 
enamel may also be cracked },y sudden exposure to cold. 
The mouth should be kept cloed «n going out of a warm 
room into the wintry cold. If the enamel is preserved un- 
broken, the tooth is not likely to decay. 
ttuman teeth loosen and drop out in advanced age. The 
wisdom teeth, so called because they do not appear until 
maturity the "age for wisdom," are usually the first to dis- 
appear. The structure of a tooth is so hard and compact, 
that long after death, when the bones of the body have ail 
crumbled to dust, the teeth remain whole. 

DIGESTION. --'-' o 
he Tongue.This portant organ consis princi- 
pally of muscle, and is literally the most tive muoele 
the by. It is covered with mucous membrane, and highly 
endowed with sensibility. The nerves of the scifl seine of 
t belong to the ngue. On its upper surface may be seen 
a number of little eminences, or iapillœee, which are freely 
suppli with delicate nerve-fibres from these nerves. These 
papilloe va in se. Some ara quite small d ttle 
sks. There is a row of large ones at tck pa of the 
ne, arranged in the f, of the letter V inveed. 
The root of the ngue is atthed to the hyoid bone. The 
three chief functio of the ngue are: It rolls the f 
about in the mouth, and helps to keep it bet een the teeth 
  csh ; it is the seat of the see of taste, and it tak 
pa in the articulation of spoech. In the young the tone 
is bright r  color. As age advances it comes paler, 
excepting at the tip and edges. This organ promptly sp 
tes with the smach when in any way deranged. By 
the appearance of the tone the physician  gmided, not 
only in ailments of the stomach, but in almost eve fo 
of disee. 
8. The Saliva.The mouth is kept moist with fluid 
secreted by the mucous membrane. The salira pror is 
secret by a number of glands, which are stimulated to 
action by the presence of food. The sahva will begin to 
flow before the f«_«»d aches the mouth, and sometimes the 
thought of fo will "make the mouth to water." Iing 
with the fo as it is wound, the salira sists in brinng 
it more quickly in  soft, pulpy ms, fit f«r swallowing. 
It is  thin, colorless fluid, wMch acts upon certain pa 
of the food chemically. 
9. Saliva Glands.The saliva is secmted by three 
pai of glands, the parotid, the submaxillary and the sub- 
linge. The parotid hes  front of the ear. It h a duet 


which carries the salira aeross the check, and poufs if into 
the mouth opposite the molar teeth. The submaxillarT, as its 
naine implies, lies under the lower ]aw, and its ducts open 
into the mouth under the tons-me. The sublingual is plaeed 
under the tongue, beneath the mueous membrane, and has 
a number of ducts opening into the mouth. A eommon 
affection in children is inflammation of the parotid gland, a 
dise&se familiarly known &s mumps. 
10. The Fauces.--At the back part of the mouth is the 
entrance to the throat. Its boundaries are the soft palate 
and the uvula above, the roof of the tongue beneath, and on 
either side the pillars of the fauces, extending from the sort 
palate to the tonme. They consist of muscular tsue, covered 
with mucous membrane. 
11. The Tonsils.--Between the pillars on eaeh side is 
the tonsil. It is a large gland. The tosils are often swollen 
frorn a cold or from an inflamed throat, and may become 
permanently eflarged, so s to interfere with the breathing. 
Aeute inflammation of these glauds is c«mmonly called quinsy. 
Di1htheria usually makes its first appearance on the tonsils. 
12. The Pharynx.--Immediately behind the fauces is 
a large space or chamber, the llarynx. The lower portion 
contracts into a narrow charmel, the mouth of the gullet. 
(}pening into this cavity are the mouth and nose, in front. 
On eaeh side, near the top, are the openings of two small 
tubes which lead to the car. Below are the openings into the 
windpipe in front, and the gullet behind. Both food and air 
pmss through the pharTnx. The arrangement by whieh this 
is donc is ver T eomplete, l'sually the soft palate hangs like 
a curtain, behind which the eurrent of air passes from the 
nose through the phary-ax into the windpipe. 'hen food is 
being swallowed ttds curtain is drawn up. 
13. The Epiglottis.At the roof of the fougue is a 
spoon-shaped piece of cartilage called the etdglotis. It acta 


like the lid of a chest. Usually the epiglottis stands erect, 
but the moment any food passes over the tongue, it is 
instantly drawn down, and closes the opening into the wind- 
pipe, so that the food is carried on fo the gullet. If hOt 
well closed, a little food or drink may "go the wrong way," 

,,, .- .,.,ç-._ -"p 
. l, -- "__'-" ...., 
'»,- « ' Il ::.l,dl»_.l I  ç"'. 
.... . 0 .1 
FI. 22.tion showg p  the guHet and ndpip 

and cause violent coughing and choking. Boisterous laughter 
af table is sometimes suddenly and seriously checked in this 
accidental way. 
The process of swallowing food is partially a voluntary and 
partially an involuntary action of the muscles engaged. If is 
by the individual's will that food or dt4nk is carried into the 


pharynx. When it reaches a certain point the involuntary 
muscles, first of the pharynx, then 0î the gullet, begn to act, 
and by alternately relaxing and eontraeting, the food is 
passed on into the stomach This motion may be seen when 
a horse is drinking. 
14. The OEsophagus.--The gullet is a tube about nine 
inches in length, extending from the pharynx to the stomach. 
This tube is ruade of three coats--the lining or mucous mem- 
brane, a middle coat of connçctive tissue, and the outer mus- 
cular coat, consisting of two layers. The fibres of muscle lie 
lengthwise in the outer layer, and in the inner layer they 
circle around the tube. _As the muscular rings contract, one 
after another, they force the food towards thc stomach. 
.l--he Stornach.--The chier organ of digestion is situ- 
ated thin the ahdominal cavity, immediately beneath the 
diphragm. It is conil in shape, something like a pear, 
with the small end turned a good deal to one side. It bas 
also been compared to a bag-pipe. It is placed across the 
body, the large end to the left. The gullet enters the stomach 
near this end, on the upper surface. This is called the car- 
diac openixag, because it is near the heart. The small end fo 
the right is turned upward, narrowed for a lîttle distance, 
and is continuous with the intestine. The opening at this 
end is called the pylorus, or gare guardian. The healthy 
stomach of the adult will contain about three pints go two 
quarts of liquid. 
The stomach hs four coats ; three similar to those of the 
gmllet, and an outside coat of smooth serous me.mbrane, which 
prevents friction from the movemens of the stomach. -The 
serous membrane, after covering the stomach, passes to the 
inner wall of the body, and holds this organ in place. The 
mu8cular eoat bas two layers, one with its fibres lengthwise, 
the ot'fiê rmming round the organ, and at the large end an 
additional layer of oblique fibres. The united action of thee 


muscles produces a movement of the contents of the stomch 
like churning. In this way the food is thoroughly mixed 
with the secretions from the inner walls of the stomach. 
The mumb.rane, or lining of the stomach, is of a 
pinkish hue, changing fo red during digestion. If lies in 
ïolds when the stomch is empty, but these folds disappear 
vhen it is filled. Examined closely, the lining of the 
somach has a peculiar honeycomb appearance, owing fo 
ifs being dotted over with small shallow pits. At the 
bottom of these little pifs a number of ducts open. They 
are the openings through which the juice.from the gastric 
glads situated in the lining reaches the food. 
The stomach is freely supplied with blood-vessels, and when 
food is swallowed if exaltes the nerves of this organ, and 
causes the small vessels to dilate. The increased flow of 
blood, besides furnishing the glands with material from which 
fo extrct the juice, stimu]ates them to action. 
The gastric juice is a rhin, colorless fluid, with a distinctly 
acid taste. Besides this free cid, it contains a pculiar 
substance known as pepsin. The acid and the pepsin are 
both neoessary to the digestion of food in the stomch. 
When the meal is completed the muscles begin to contruct, 
so as fo roll the food over and over, until thoroughly mixed 
with this juice, and reduced to a pulpy, soup-like mass. All 
this rime the outlet to the stomach is guarded so that no 
food can pass tmtil it bas been properly changed. The flow 
of gatric juice may be too free, and interfere with healthy 
digestion. This increased flow may be caused by stimulating 
axticles such as mustard or pepper, taken with the food, or 
still worse, the use of ACOHO. in an form, to stimulate 
the appetite. On the other hand, the flow may be too 
scanty. It is sometimes checked by a drink of cold water, 
or by swallowing a piece of ice. If food is taken when a 
person la much fatigued, the secretion of gastric juice la 



likely to be deficient. Strong emotions will also check the 
16. Absorption.--The length of time required for the 
digestion of food varies, some articles being more quickly 
digested than others. Liquid food and drinks are quickly 
taken up by the aborbents in the coats of the stomach. 
peaking generally, after the food bas been in the stomach 
from an hour and a hall to two hours, portions of it will 
have undergone the necessary changes to conver it into 
chyme. The pylorus relaxes suiiciently at intervals to allow 
this soup-like, grgyish-colored fluid, which bas round ifs way 
to that end of the stomach, to pass out into the intestine. 
In succession, portion after portion is digested and passed on, 
until all the food which the stomach is capable of digesting 
is disposed of. Then the pylorus, having retained everything 
as long as necessary, freely relaxes, and the indigestible bal- 
ance passes into the intestine, to be furtheracted upom 
17. The Intestines.--The process of digestion is by no 
means complete vhen the food, changed into chyme, is poured 
into the intestines. Further changes here take place, and 
the food advances in the vitalizing process of being converted 
into blood. 
The alimentary canal, from the stomach onward, is divided 
into the large and snall intestines. The total length is about 
twenty-five feet. This tube is so coiled and doubled upon 
itself as to fit snugly in the abdomen. The coats of the 
intestines are the same in number as those of the stomach. 
The sma|l intestine, about twenty feet in length, com- 
mences at the stomach. It is largest at the beginning, being 
nearly two inches in" diameter. This first part is called the 
duodenum, because it is about the length of twelve fingers' 
breadth. Where the small intestine joins the large, it is 
little more than an inch in diameter. The large intestine is 
from one and a half to two and a hall inches in diameter, 


beil,g also largest af ifs commencement. Af the point of 
union, the two tubes do not form a continuous straight 
passage, but the smaller one opens into the larger on its 
inner side, something after the manner in which a small 
pipe leads off from the side of 
a larger. The large intestine is 
here closed at its lowest part, 
forming a pouch.  a  "= 
A magzrifying glass shows the 
inner surface of the small intes- 
tine to be covered with minute 
elevations. These are known as 
villi. The size of each villus is 
from one-fiftieth to one-thirty- 
second of an inch in length. 
They are so thickly placed as to 
give the lining the appearance 
of the pile on velvet. It is these 
tiny projections that give to tripe 
its peculiar appearance. In each $ 6 
villus is a branch, sometimes 
double, of the lymphatic system. 
These branches are known as 
the lacteals, so called because, 
during digestiolb they contain a 
Fro. 23.--The Alimentary Canal be. 
milky fluid, the cy/e, which they low the gu]iet: 1, stomach; 2, 3, 4, 
smail intestines; 6-11, large intestine; 
bave sucked up from the con- 
5, closed pouch of large intestine. 
tents of the intestine. Follow- 
ing the chyle on through the lacteals, we find the tubes 
become larger, and finally pour their contents into a sac at 
the back of the loins, called the receptac[e of te cy[e. From 
this sac, the toraic duct ascends through the back part 
of the thoracic cavity, and eventually opens into a large vein 


in the neck. It is af this point, therefore, that the utrient, 
parts of the food enter directly into the blood current. 
The secretions which enter the intestine fo be mixed with 
the chyme are from different sources, and differ in their 
action. There is the intestinal juive, from the intestinal 
glands, whose ducts open between the villi all over the inner 
surïace of the intestine ; the loancreativ juce, îrom the lan - 
creas, and the bile, from the liver. 
18. The Pancreas.--This is the sweet-bread of the lower 
animals. It is situated under and behind the stomaeh, and 

Fro. 24.--Section of Stomach. 

varies in length from six 
to eight inehes. It bears 
some resemblance fo a 
dog's tongue. The pan- 
ereas secretes a fluid callod 
thepancreatiejuiee, whieh 
elosely resembles salira i 
its action on the food. 
19. The Liver.--This 
is the |argest gland in 
the body, and is situated 
immediately beneath the 
diaphragm, on tbe right 

side. Its weight is about four pounds. The human liver has 
the saine general appearance as that taken from the animal. 
The liver is divided into a right and left lobe by a deep 
fissure, the right being the larger. The upper surface is 
smooth and rounded. In the fi.sure are round the blood- 
vessels, and a duct eoming from each lobe. These duets 
unite and form one channel, for earrying the bile into the 
intestine. At a little distance from the union of the two 
duets is another, which leads off the bile when hot required 
for digestion, and stores it up in a little pear-shaped sac, 
called the gall bladder. After a meal the stored-up bile finds 

iust as do all the organs of the body. Three meals a day is a 
common division of labor for the organs of digestion. This is 
in accordance with the laws of physiology, and established by 
xperience. In departing from this rule we impose upon the 
In irancy, milk is sutcient to supply ail the necessaries 
lile, but as the ehild grows, a more varied diet is required. 
Now cornes the temptation. The child develops tastes, and 
unless checked, will tke to excess the food for which it haz 
the greatest liking. Craving for candies and sweetmeats is 
common, and if indulged, will injure the stomach and take 
away the desire for proper food. Children should be taught 
temperance in food, and not allowed to eat wholly of any one 
class because their appetite run in that direction. 
The kind of food most suitable to man depends largely on 
the climate in which he Iives. In the cold northern regious 
there is the strongest liking for the heat-producers, and the 
native lire mostly on rats. In t.he sunny south a diet of 
fruits and vegetbles largely prevails. In temperate climates 
the diet consists of mixed foods. In his primitive state man 
uses food in its simplest forms. The more civilized the more 
he beeomes addicted to the use of artificial food, and the 
more he suffers from digestive derangements. To the natural 
appetite no artificial preparations to please the taste are 
required. To indulge the taste for the pleasure it affords 
often means the taking of more food than the system requiro 
The cook who prepares the daintiest dishes may not always 
be regarded as a benefactor to his fe]lowman. 
26. Alcoholic Stimulants and 
medicine given to incr_se the appetite, or fo strengthen and 
invigorate the system. It is only when a p'erson is feeling iii, 
or is recovering from a severe sicknes, that a tonic to the 
stomach is desirable. To be continual]y dosing the system to 
create an appetite is unwise. It is vastly more so to try to do 


this by the use of stimulants, no marrer whether the dose be 
in the form of some "well-known bitters," a "glass of beer," 
a "taste" of sherry, or a "plain" vhiskey and water. ]lany 
drugs may be, and are, taken, which probably do little or no 
harm to the system. But this cannot be said of alcoholic 
stimulants. Their irritating action on any of the tissues is 
injurious, but more especially so on a tender part, like the 
lining membrane of the stomach. Derangements of digestion 
are sure to follow the continued use of alcohol. 
27. Natural and Prepared Drinks.--W«ter is the 
universal drink. Its necessity is perfectly clear. The weight 
and bulk of the body are largely due to the presence of water. 
Itis the great vehicle by which food is taken into thc system, 
and through its agency the various functions of the body are 
carried on. It makes up the bulk of the blood, and is the 
great dissolving fluid of the system. It is hot in itself a 
food, but it forms a part of all food taken into the mouth. 
It dissolves solid material, and keeps it in solution. Its use 
and necessity are ob,ous. 
In milk we have a standard article of diet. It is both food 
and drink for the infant during many months. It will alone 
sustain the body at any period of life for an indefinite rime. 
Frequently in old age it la the sole article of diet. Water 
and milk are the two gret natural drins. The human 
system needs no other. In health any other is likely to 
prove injurious. It is true that tea and coffee are largely 
used, and, as  rule, seemingly without any injury. The 
taste for these, however, is hot natural. It is acquired. 
Constant use brings the system into such a condition that it 
tolerates them without any apparent ill effects. If either be 
taken in excess, or drunk freely between meals, it will injure 
the stomach. But thee, and kindred beverages, bear no 
comparison to a]cohol, an agent alike destructive to the health 
of the body as to the individual tissues and orgns. 


When di]uted with water, alcohol is readily absorbed, and 
carried by the blood to every part of the body. No organ or 
tissue is safe from it. Unless it can be shown that alcohol 
possesses elements of nutrition, or furnishes material for the 
production of heat, its presence is useless. If useless, it can- 
hot but be harmful. Anything in the system which can 
serve no useful purpose must, of necessity, be in the way ; 
and if anything is present which interferes with the functions 
of life, efforts will be put forth to get rid of it. Such is the 
case when even a small quantity of alcohol is taken. The 
lungs, the skin, and the kidneys are at once engaged in 
expelling it. It taints the breath, it exu.___des from the skin, it 
saturates the whole system with its odor. 'e bave already 
said that food, in order that it may nourish the body, must 
be changed, zNow, if alcohol escapes from the body without 
any change, itis clear it cannot be a food, and the question, 
"Is alcohol a food " can readily be answered. The study of 
physiolo,oE leads to this conviction, and scientific truths can- 
hot be ignored. As to alcohol being a factor of heat, it has 
been clearly demonstrated that it reduces the temperature. 
Experience among soldiers and seamen in high latitudes has 
. abundantly shown that the extremes of cold are better en- 
dured without, than by the use of, spirits. 
The absence of anything useful, and the burden it places on 
the powers of nature to cast it out, supply safe grounds upon 
which to declare alcohol a poison to the human system. 
28. l=-ffects of Alcohol on the Stomach.--Alcohol has 
a strong affinity for water, and if applied to the skin will 
extract its moisture, leaving it shrunken and hard. The 
stronger itis the greater the effect. When taken into the 
stomach, it will have a similar effect, upon its mucous lining. 
When first taken, if in small quantities, such, for example, as 
might be called temperate drinking, iirritates the mucous 
coat, ca_using the blood-v_.___e.ssels to dilate. This increased flow 


of blood is really a coçetio--just such  ntion  we 
 brght about  the eye h  ve 
 dt or a smll ect chanoes  get in it. 
ow, ff t j and 
kept up by a contuo "tippHng,he muco br 
 fla, thlckened nd s. The smh 
ai of derangement. The gtric glands, which at fit 
ere stula  over-ork d overupply of gc juioe, 
a now terfer ith, and the stion 
appetite for food  lost, aad  often pl by a morbid 
desire for more stulants. The psi  neoes  the 
• gtion of f  the smh, ts ve 
if the quantity of hquor taken t lard, ll ce 
aH. The smach  upset, and the 
dyspsia, digtio chromo catch, idity and even n- 
rala of that organ. 
If t sta  oentinu for some timé e hg mem- 
brane y uloerate» a condition attended with comiderable 
danger on acoet of the ssibihty of prose bleg fmm 
e ulcem, and the probabty of some one or more of th 
ting through the stomac and caung dth. 
Fmher tion of the mnt uoe of alcohol is sho in 
its exteion  allts, thickeg and hardeg thé, 
until the smh is of lit, t, le use  a digtive organ. 
of the condition of the poor ounam dard ; aeti 
gone, a, vomiting, inte thimt, pa  the h, r 
eye¢ blond fe, coa and r ne, ffuent pe, d 
ofn lever. 
29. Effects of cohol on the Liver:It h hot alone 
in the smh that the habital drinker sers. The small 
intin are Mso involv. Functiol derangement, and 
suuent chang, such  e bave dcfib in the smh. 
e lely  ke pl he. The panc, al,  . 
But it   t Hver we d the most mark chang of 

structure. The liver and the brain are the two organs which 
seem to-receive the largest œeercentage of the alcohol taken 
into the system. Continual congestion of the liver resulting 
from alcoholic drinks inevitably leads to an alteration in its 
texture, and deranges its functiom At first it is inflamed, 
iniarged, and soft. 2kfterwards it cntracts and harç]2ns, 
and_preaeatan unev_en_s_urfac__ce. This is called a "hob-nai]," 
or gin<l_rink_e_x:a_liy_e,r, From the first, the bile secreted is 
unhealthy, and is hot fit to perform its part in the intestinal 
digestion. The frequent driaker suffers from "biliousness, ' 
and other intestinal disturbances. 
Sometimes the 1/ver is very greatly enlarge2 by the de- 
posit of fat in its substance. This is the disease spoken of 
in cormection with the muscular system as faty dêgenera- 
tion. In some caes the liver reaches an enormous weight, 
fifteen, and even twenty to twenty-five, pounds being hot 
30. The lEffect of Tobacco on Digestion.--It is in 
stimulating and increasing the flow of salira, vhich is thus 
lost fo the system, that tobacco chiefly aaects the digestive 
organs. The sense of taste, so neoessary to the proper appre- 
ciation of food, and desire for eating it, is numbed by the 
use of tobacco. Hence it really checks, or in a sense satisfies, 
the appetite for food. 
It frequent]y inflames the throut and keeps up a chronic 
catarrh, or "smoker's sore-throat," which may extend to the 
stomach, and cause a feëling of general distress, with derange- 
ment of this and other organs. 




1. The Blood.--The blood is the life-glving liquid which 
permeates every part of the body, exeept the eutiele, hair, 
nails, etc. The average quantity in the body is equal to 
about one-thirteenth of the body-weight; therefore, a man 

e oed coles hgve arng themselves  rolls, a, a, whi 
oeuscles. B, d oel more mfi; C, cocles 8een 
edgewise;  G, H, I, w oeles gbly 
weighing about one hundred and eighty-five pounds wou]d 
have between fourteen and fifteen pounds of blood. As it 
is drawn from the body, if is  r, sticky fluid. 

under the microscope, we find, in addition to a fluid, which 
is called plasma, there are numerous small discs, or corpuscles, 
fioating about in the fiuid. 
There are two varieties oî blood corpuscles, the 'ed and the 
white. Itis the presence of the enormous quantity of red 
corpuscles that gives to the blood its red color. They are 
little, fiat, circular discs, resembling a coin, only thicker 
near the rira than at the centre. They have a strong ten- 
dency to run together, like aroll of tenent pieces--as 
seen in Fig. 25, where some lie separate, whi]e others are 
in rolls. 
The white corpuscles are not so numerous, only about one 
fo every four hundred of the red. They are a little larger 
and more globular in shpe, although, watched under the 
microscope, it will be noticed that in making their way 
through the minute vessels they change their shape. 
2. Uses of the Blood.--These little corpuscles are really 
the carriers of food to the tissues. Like boats on a stream, 
they float along, laden with material, which they unload into 
the system ; then reload with the refuse, and carry it back to 
the lungs, to be given off into the air. They are charged with 
oxygen in the lungs, and carry it to where there is work to 
be done or repairs to be made. 
The plasma is rich in mberal matter for the bones, and in 
albumen for the muscles. 
3. Clotting of Blood.--When blood is drawn from the 
body it soon clots, that is, it forms into a jelly-like mass. 
The clot consists mainly of two substnces--a network of 
tough, fibrous threads, calledfibrin, which separates out from 
the plasma and the corpuscles, which are caught in this net- 
work. The clotting of the blood is an important provision of 
nature for rresting its flow from a wounded blood-vessel. 
The moment blood escapes from the vessel, the fibrin begins 
to form, and clogs up the cut and arrests the flow from the 


wound. It sometimes happens that little or no fibrin forms, 
and the slightest wound bleeds freely. In such a case it 
is dangerous to bave even a tooth extracted. 
4. The Organs of Circulation.oEhe circulation of the 
blood is carried on by the ]zeart, arteries, capillaries and 
veins. The blood constitutes the food of the tLssues, and in 
supplying these finds its way to the most remote parts of 
the body. The circulation of the blood never ceases whilc 
life continues. It flows from the heart, bearing the elements 
of growth and sustenance. It returns to the heart, carrying 
with it the waste products. The arteries are the channeLs 
through which the rich, bright-red blood feeds the ti.ssues. 
Tlm veirm are the tube-like canals through xvhich the dark, 
impure blood returs. Between the final branches of the 
small arteries and the small veins lies a great network of 
capillaries. In these capillaries the elements of the fcd, 
digested and carried into the circulation, are incorporated 
in the li-ing tissue. 
5. The System a Closed Sac.mThe heart and the 
thrce varieties of blood-vessels form a cavity in 'hich the 
blood is confined. The arteries and »eins, with the capil- 
laries, are a continuation of the heart. They form a complete 
circuit, so that the space within is continuous. The b]ood 
proper cannot pass through the coats of these vessels at 
any point. It parts with its nutrient material whfle it is 
flowing through the cai, illaries , but the blood itself cannot 
pass through the walls, uxless they are injured or cut. The 
prick of a pin, if deep enough, will draw blood, because it 
pierces one or more of these small vessels. At the saine time 
that it imparts its nourishanent to tb, e tissues, it receives from 
them their wornut products. The vitiated blood, returning 
to the heart through the veins, is then sent by a separate 
system of vessels to the lungs, where it is brought in close 
relation with the air we breathe. Here the vital change of 


venous into arterial blood is effected, and it flows back to the 
heart purified and ready for further circulation. 
6. The Heart.--The great central organ of blood circu- 
lation is a powerful pump ruade of muscular tissue. It is 
placed near the middle of the chest, between the lungs, which, 

ia fact, almost sur- 
round it, there being 
nly a small trian- 
gular portion in front 
uncovered. At this 
point the action of 
the heart can be 
readily examined. It 
is conical in form, 
and is placed ob- 
liquely, with the base 
upward, the apex 
pointing downwards 
and forward, toward 
the left side. The 
size of the heart var- 
ies in different per- 
sons, and according 
to age, but the size 
of the individual does 
hOt modify it. It 
is, however, usually 

Fro. 26.--The Hcaxt: A, the right ventricle; B, the left 
ventr]cle; C, the r]ght auricle; D, the left auricle. 

smaller in the female. The size of one's fist is said to cor- 
respond with that of the heart. It continues to grow for 
some rime after the full size of the body is attained, especially 
in the male. The average me&surement h the adult is about 
rive inches in length, three inches and a half from side to 
side in the broadest part, and two inches and a half from 
the front to the back surface. 

The heart is a hollow organ, and the cavity is di-ided into 
two separate compartments by a muscular wall running from 
top to bottom. Fach compartment is divided into two parts, 
thus making four chambers. The upper chambers are cailed 
respectively the r/g]t and the left auricle. The lower are 
known as the r/g]t and left ventricles. 
The walls of the heart are ruade up chiefly of muscular 
tissue, in which are ner','es and small blood-vessels to nourish 
the structure. The chambers are lined with a smooth, fibrous 
membrane, the endocardium. The heart is surrounded by a 
closed sac, which is also conical in shape, called the perar- 
dium. The base of this sac is below, while at its upper part, 
or the part corresponding to the base of the heart, itis 
f«»ldd on to that organ, and becomes its outer covering; 
hence the heart is really surrounded by a closed bag, the 
inner layer of which is firmly attached, while the outer 
layer is large and loose. Between the two layers is a smal] 
amount of watery fluid to moisten the surfaces and prevent 
friction from the constant movements of the heart. 
7. The Valves of the Heart.--The heart is a double 
organ, the two right chambers containing the dark and the 
two left the bright red blood. The right side receives into 
its auricle the venous blood through two large veins, one 
from above and the other from below, the vena cavoe. As 
the auricle contracts, the blood is forced into the right 
ventricle through an opening in the partition between the 
two chambers. The opening is guarded by a valve, ruade 
up of three triangular folds of membrane, and hence cailed 
the t valve. .4s soon as the ventricle beoo4.ns to 
contract this valve closes, and the blood is sent onward 
into a large vessel, the pulmonary arter, and this, dividing 
into two, carries the blood to the lungs. To prevent any 
return of blood when the ventricle relaxes, the pulmonary 

artery is provided with half-moon-shaped folds of membrane, 
the semi-lunar_ valves. 
he blood, having traversed the lungs, collects in the pul- 
m..__y v___ and is carried to the left side of the heart, 
where it is received into the left auricle. This circuit, from 
the right ventricle through the lungs and back fo the left 
auricle, is called the short or Fulmonary circulation. From 
the left auricle the blood is driven on through an opening in 


F. 27.--Cross section o! the Heurt, showinff: A, tHcuspid ra]e; 
B, ntral vave; C, sen-lunar va, res o! the pulmonary artery; D, 
sen-lunar valves o! the aorta. 

another partition, into the left ventricle. The opening in this 
partition is also provided with a valve, called the m.itral, 
becaLse it is shaped like a bghop's mitre. 
The walls of the left ventricle are nearly three rimes as 
thick as those of the right. Vhen the left ventricle con- 
tracts, the blood L sent into the first artery, the aorta, with 
sufficient force fo carry it fo every part of the system. Its 
return through the various veins, to the right side of the 
heart, completea the long or body circulation. Semi-lunar 


valves, simi]ar to those guarding the pulmonary artery, but 
much stronger, are placed at the opening of the aorta. 
8. The Arteries.--The strong elastic tubes which carry 
the blood from the heart to all parts of the body are called 
arteries. We bave mentioned the aorta. This is the largest 
artery in the body. It receives the blood from the ]eft ven- 
tricle, carries it along, and distributes if toits numerous 
branches. After leaving the heart, the aorta arches back- 
ward, li]e the curve on a walking-stick, and passes down the 
back part of the thorax into the a»domen, where it divides 
to supply the lower extremities. Along this course it gives 
(,ff such important branches as those to the arms and head, 
and further on, it sends branches to supply the walls of the 
c|mst and the organs in the a]»domen. These are the main 
branches from the aorta, ]ike the |imbs of a tree from the 
parent tmmk. Follow them on, and we find, as in a tree, 
the branches divide and su|»divîde, growing sma]ler and 
maller as we near their termination. Ultimately they be- 
corne so sma|l and so numerous as to form a close network. 
This network, at ifs finest parts, constitutes what are called 
the capi]laries, or hair-l[ke tubes. 
The web of the frog's foot affords a "good example for 
se«.ing, under the microscope, the flow of blood through the 
capillaries. We can ee the corpuscles wending their way 
in single iï]e along these narrow passages, and occasiona]]y 
swaying to and fro, stopping for a moment, but soon to be 
rushed on again with the ever-constant stream. 
9. The Veins.--Gradually the blood b the capillaries, 
now dark and impure, is gathered into small tubes, called 
veins. As they proceed toward the heart, the veins join 
each other, becoming fewer in number, but larger in size, 
until all those from the legs and a|)domen are joined into one 
grea$ vein, which opens into the right auric]e at its lower 
part ; and those from the head and arms form another large 

CRCUL'O. 87 

vein, which opens into the saine auricle at its upper part. 
These are the vena cavoe already mentioned. 
10. How the Blood is ruade to Flow.--The action of 
the heart is entirely involuntary. It contracts and dilates 
with great regularity. Each contraction or beat of the heart 
forces the blood onward into the arteries. As it again dilates 
it sucks the blood from the veins into the auricle. While the 
heart supplies the chief moving power for circulating the 
blood, the arteries, by virtue of their elastic walls, assist and 
regulate the flow. With each beat of the heart the arteries 

 ,'g' -. ' , "-. 
.-" i..- "_. , 
A B C 
Fro. 28.--Circulation o the N in the Web o a Frofs Foot, NgMy 
mifie A, an a; B, pil crowded th coles, ong 
 a pe jt ave, where the coul aoe jed  an j 
oent me; C, a eper vein. e bk  a pient 
expan to ceive the additional volume of blé. The 
impulses move along the ae  wa-es, and can l)e felt 
in derent pas of the body. They are kn,wn as the pulse. 
e physician ually feels the pe st the wt, becae it 
 a conveent place. 
e veno bloed flows along  a stey, even stream. 
e current from behind, prsg it on toward the hea, 
the squeezg of the vers by the muscles of the by gener- 
Hy, and the suction of the beaU, all tend » brg the blo 
boek aga. There h, therefore, not much tual prsu  

the veins, and hence their walls are thinner than çhe arçeres. 
They also lie nearer the surface of the body, where they are 
more exposed. But vith litte pressure there is little danger 
from loss of blood when injured. 
11. Effects of Alcohol on the Heart.--The health and 
general welfare of out being depend upon the regular action 
of the heart, and continuous flow of the blood throughout the 
body. The heart is subject t a varieçy of derangements. 
These derangements may be of a temporary nature, and tan 
usually be removed by resç and care; or they may be due to 
some change of sçructure, causing permanent impairment of 
the functions of the heart. The hearç may be temporarily 
reduced in its action through fear, fright or sudden bereave- 
menç; while again, there are many emotions attended with 
increaed action of the heart. Certain drinks and various 
articles of diet increae the heart-beats. General weakness 
may be manifested by a low or irregular puise. Digestive 
disturbances may have a marked effect upon the pulse. The 
heart is separated from the stomach only by the diaphragm, 
so thaç the pressing upward of an over-full stomach may 
Temporary disorders of the heart bave generally an exciting 
cause which, if kept up, may lead to a permanent change of 
structure. Among the most common of these exciting causes 
is the persistent use of alcoholic drinks and tobacco. Alco- 
ho| invariably affects the heart's action. Whenfirst_takenjt 
increases the beats, and seems for a time to stïengthen the 
heart. Soon, however, there will follow a wek, feeble con- 
dition of the puise, with  feeling of depression throughout 
çthe whole system. Itis then the habitual drinker wll take 
an additional glass, another, and perhaps another, and so on 
day by day, until the alcohol habit has become established. 
Sir Benjamin Richardson, Bart., author of the Cantor Lec- 
çu.res, sas on this loint: "A man who is very temperate 


but who takes alcohol, feels most distinctly the effect of even 
a slight excess. Such a man, if he be tempted to move from 
the single glass of mfld dinner ale a day to take a glass or 
two of wine, when he goes out to dinner, or to take a single 
glass of grog at night, is conscious of the evil influence the 
next day. He says, if he speaks truly, that he was rather 
excited by the drink ; and he says, that when the stage of 
depression cornes, that he feels 'all-overish, depressed, rather 
chilly, and not up to the mark.' He is tired, and he thinks 
he should be none the worse if he took an extra glass of ale 
to set him right. In nine cases out of ten he does take this 
extra glass of ale; it does set him wbat he calls right, and 
finding how easy a thing it is to get over a slight excess, the 
next rime he is tempted he ventures a little further. So the 
habit of taking too much begins in taking just a little, while 
being, indeed, very temperate, and while keeping in fashion 
with other folks. This is the beginning of woe." 
In speaking of the effects of a]cohol upon muscle, we 
pointed out that it lessens muscular power exactly in propor- 
tion to the amount taken. Now, as the heart is a muscular 
organ, it will, of necessity, be similarlyàffected. More thon 
thé,, the fatty change already mentioned as due to continued 
use of alcohol, is more apt to take place in the muscles of the 
heart than elsewhere. This disease is all the more serious, in 
that it is likely to affect the heart. Loaded w__thtaes 
its strength, becomes enlargedand flabby, while its thickened 
valves are no longer sufficient. 
12. Effects of Alcohol on the Blood-vessels.--By 
the increased action of the heart more work is put upon the 
arteries. The pulse_, f__or a time, is stronger from over-stimula- / 
tin. As soon, however, as this stimulating effect passes off, 
a period of depression follows, and the pulse is reduced below 
the standard. The delicate nerves which supply the blood- 
yemsels and keep their nUscula.r wa|ls in good tone are so 


affected by alcohol as to lose their influence, and allow the 
vessels to dilate. This is well marked in the capillaries, and 
its effect is apparent to an observer. The flushed face is an 
early indication of alcoholic indulgence. The coats of the 
capillaries relax so much that the face becomes quite red- 
dened. What is readily seen in the skin exists elsewhere. 
The same degree of congestion is uniform hroughout. the 
body, and nutrition la interfered with everywhere. 
This loss of power in the coats of the capilla,'ies to contract 
may be temporary, but when a person becomes addicted to 
the use of alcohol, it will produce a permanent dilated con- 
¢lition of the small vessels. As a result, we see the red nose 
(,f the wine or brandy drinkers. It is the saine paralyzed 
condition of the capillaries in the liver, brain and other inter- 
nal orga which leads to diseased conditions. 
Very often in chronic, though perhaps moderate, drinkers, 
the arteries, OEtead of being strong, elatic tubes, like new 
rubber hose, become hardened and unyielding, and are liable 
to give way. 
13. l-ff£tS of Tobacco on the Heart.--The use of 
tobacco in any form bas a depressing effect on the heart. It 
weaker its force, and often interferes with the regularity of 
its action. It is more marked in its effects on the young, 
the weak, or on those disposed to (lisease. The strong and 
healthv may seem to escape its effects, but when we know it 
imposes extra labor on the heart, upsets Che nerve influence 
which keeps up its constant and uniform action, we know 
enough about it to pronounce it hot only useless, but harmful. 
It is just possible, if the truth were known, it is the direct 
cause of many heart failures and other cases of sudden death 
from heart disease. 



1. Why we IBreathe.--In the preceding chapter we 
traced the circulation of the blood, and noticed that, in pass- 
ing through the capillaries, it gives to the cells of each tissue 
the f«»od and fuel they require, while, at the saine time, it 
receives from the tissues certain elements of decay. The 
arterial blood, freighted with oxygen, is changed into venou 
blood, laden with carbonic acid and other products of chemi 
c,i chang, e. In the round of circulation, the venous blood is 
carried to the lungs. To prerve the system in hea|th, these 
bnpurities must be got rid of, and it  the office of the 
respiratory system to discharge this important duty, and to 
give back to the blood a fresh supply of oxygen fr«Jm the 
air. The act of breathing is necessary f«r life. It might 
even be suspended fr some minutes in rre instances, but 
the demand for air is imperative, aad if hot given, lire is 
2. The Organs of Respiration.--These consist of the 
lungs, the air 1oassazes and the pulrnonary vessels, with their 
branches. They .re situated in the chest, and vith the heart 
and large blood-vessels, fill the thoracic cavity. 
3. The Lungs.--There are two lungs, the right and the 
left. They are separuted by the heart and large blood-vessels. 
Each lung is conical in shape, the apex fitting into the upper 
pointed cavity of the chest, immediately under the collar- 
bone, the base resting on the di.phragm. The outer surface 
is rounded, fo fit the curve of the ribs. The inner surface is 


concave, and has a fissure, in which are the air-tubes and 
vessels entering the lungs. 
Each lung is divided into two lobes by a long, deep fissure. 
The upper lobe of the right lung is partially divided by a 
short fissure, so that itis said to have three lobes. The right 
lung is somewhat the larger, on account of the heart being 
placed a little to the left side. 

Fmi 29.--The Lungs and Heart, 
viewed in front. 

In substance the lung is 
of a light porous or spongy 
nature, and very elastic. 
This lightness of texture 
is largely due to the pres- 
ence of air, which is never 
entirely expelled, even 
when we force out all we 
can. Examined minutely, 
we find the lung to consist 
of lobules, closely cormected 
together, but yet quite dis- 
tinct from one another. 
Each lobule is fomed of 
one of the divisions of a 
bronchial tube, with its 

air-cells, and of the divisions of the pulmonary vessels. In 
each are also round nutritious vessels and nerves. There are 
a large number of air-cells to one branch of a small bronchial 
tube. Thev cluster around it like a bunch" of grapes on a 
stem. If the stem were hol]¢w, and each grape an empty sac 
communicating with it, to blow into the stem would ve a 
fair example of how the air fills up the airells every time we 
take in a breath. Think how small these air-cells must be, 
when seventeen hundred of them cluster around one small 
tube. Yet each cell is separated from the other by a fine, 
rhin partition. In this delicate, thin wall is a dense network 


of capillaries, and itis here the dark, impure blood, while 
passing through, parts with the carbonic acid, and in return 
receives from the air the required oxygen. As in the general 
system, this network collects into larger vessels, and the 
blood, now changed to  bright red color, passes on through 
the pulmonary veins into the heurt. 

Fo. 0.--Outline of the Lungs, with the Larynx, Windpipe 
and Bronchi.i Tubes. 

4. The Air Passages.--Extending from the back of the 
tongue to the root of the lungs are the air passages, through 
which the air rushes in ech act of breathing. The first part, 
the t'acea, is a single tube, which divides into two branches 
t the lower part of the neck, one for ech lung. Each 


branch divides into a number of smaller ones, like the 
branches of a tree, until they terminate in the delicate air- 
cells just described. 
The windTipe is a hollow tube, about four to rive inches 
long, malle up of fibrous tissue in which are situated rings of 
cartilage. These rings are hot quite perfect, but more like a 
horseshoe in shape, being incomplete at the back. They are 
eaily felt in front. If the rings were complete at the bazk, 
the gullet could not expand so realily when we swallow food. 

Fo. 31.--Front view of the 
Lrynx: I, upper ring o! 
windpipe ; 2, 3, càrtilage of 
the larynx (figure 3 ]s on the 
Adam's apple); 4, epiglotti8; 
I, membrane uniting car- 

The I0resence of cartilage in the tube 
prevents the sides from coming together 
by the suction of air. It also protects 
the passage from any outside pressure. 
Where it enters the chest the wind- 
pipe divides into the right and ]eft bron- 
chia tubes. Ai the foot of the lung 
each tube divides and subdivides, until 
it spreads throughout the entire organ. 
The larynx is a triangular-shaped box 
of cartilage situated at the top of the 
v¢indpipe. The cartilage projects for- 
ward, especially in the male, in whom 
it is usually quite imminent. This is 
commonly called "Adam's apple." The 
larynx has been called the voice box, 
because here the varlous sounds of the 

humn voice are produced. 
The entrance to the larynx Ls a triangular opening a£ the 
root of the tongue, called the glottis'and this entrance is 
guarded by the epiglottis, which was mentioned in connection 
with the pharynx. Y¢ithin the larynx, on each side, the 
]ining membrane frm two folds, stretching from front to 
back, and separated by a well-marked hollow. These are 
the vocal cords. The lowcr folds are strengthened by fibrous 


tissue ploeed within the fold. These are called the truc vocal 
cords, being alone employed in the production of the voice. 
The upper folds are called the ./àlse vocal cords. 
5. The Voice.--There is a V-shaped space or chink 
betwcen the truc vocal cords, through which the air passes 
to and from the lungs. This chink may be narrowed or 
widened by the action of muscles, while at the same time 
the cords are ruade tight or loose like the cords of a musical 
instrument. It is this power to vary thc size of the chink 
and the tension of the cords which produces the many dir- 

ont sounds the human voice is capable 
of uttering. In quiet breathing the 
air makes no sound, but the moment 
we tune up the instrument by tighten- 
ing the cords and lessenhg the chink, 
the air makes a noise. The size and 
length of the vocal cords are not the 
same in every person, and hence the 
variety in the pitch of the voice. A 
short cord on any instrument gives 
a high pitch, and a long cord ves 
forth a deep or low note. Itis the 
saine in the human voice. In women 
and children, the larynx being smaller, 

C c 

FIO. 3F..--riïne Larynx as seen 
from aboxe: a, b, c, cartilages 
of the larynx; d, epiglottis 
e, e, vocal cords. 

thc cords are shorter than in men, consequently their voices 
have a higher pitch. 
A musical sound is a prolonged vibration of the vocal 
cords. The number and variety of sounds produced in sing- 
ing depend upon the length of the cords and their different 
degrees of tension. 
Singing is an exceedingly useful exercise in school; it 
pleases the sense; it elevates the mind ; it exercises the 
muscles of the chest ; it trains and devek,ps the vocal cords 
and increases the capacity of the larynx so that the child 


becomes what we may call an acquired singer ; and lastly, 
what is also of great importance, if moderates and improves 
the quality of many voices which would otherwise be harsh 
and unpleasant. 
Up to a certain period the pitch of the voice is much the 
saine in both sexes. About the age of fourteen the larynx 
and vocal cords begin to grow rapidly, and the voice in 
the boy "cracks." Frequently the cords grow so rapidly, 
and become slack so suddenly, that a boy often wakens 
in the morning to find his voice bas changed. 
Voice is the sound produced by the vocal cords. Animals 
can produce sound, but they cannot speak. Speech is the 
voice modified by the mouth, tongue, teeth, lips and nose, 
and is a faculty of the brain wbich belongs only to man. 
Parrots and certain other birds bave been taught to imitate 
s«Junds, but they do mJt possess the true faculty of speech. In 
whispering, the sounds are ruade by the vibration of the lips. 
6. The Pleura.--The lungs are enveloped in a closely 
attwhed serous membrane, called the pleura. Each lung has 
a separate covering. This membrane is reflected from the 
lung to the inner walls of the chest and forms a complete 
lining to the thoric cavity. It is also a closed sac like 
the other serous membranes of the body, and contains more 
or less watery fluid. The regular expansion and contraction 
of the chest causes a certain amount of motion between the 
walls and the lungs. The smooth pleura, with the contained 
fluid, assists the motion and prevents friction. Inflammation 
of the pleura is called pleurisy. 
7. The Act of Breathing.--The space within the chest 
is increased on all sides by muscular action. One set of 
the oblique muscles of the sides draws the ribs uprard, 
pressing the breas bone forward, while at the same time 
the diaphragm descends against the contents of the abdo- 
men. This enlargement of the chest cavity causes a rush of 


air through the windpipe to fill up the lungs as they expand 
to occupy the increased space. Ve call this breathing in 
air or an inspirationt/ When this act is completed, the 
diaphraqn at once ascends and the ribs are drawn down 
by another set of oblique muscles, bringing the lungs back 
to their ordinary size and forcing out the air. This is called 
breathing out or expiration. Under ordinary conditions the 
act of breathing is uniïorm a" nd at the rate of about seven- 
teen rimes to the minute, or about once to every four beats of 
the heart. If the heart is made to beat more rapidly by work, 
exercise or excitement, the breathing is also more rapid. 
Breathing may be varied in other ways. In sighing, for 
istance, therr.]_glonged inspiration followed by an 
expiration more_or less audibl_e. Laughiu and crying are 
rapid, short contrr3àons of the dphrgm. 'e distinmish 
them by the appearance of the face and the sound of the 
voice. In cn:g._.d_ sneezing there is a udden and 
forcible_expulsign of the  intended to dislodge and carry 
out some offending substance either through the mouth or 
nose, tticcough is a sudden spasm of the diaphraqn, causing 
the air to rush ag_ainst the-closed glottis, producing a char- 
acteristic sound. Yawning is similar to sighing, but the air 
is drawn in through the mouth and the jaw lowered in a 
characteristic manner. 
8. The Change of I:-lements in the Lungs.--The 
impurities in the venous blood brought to the lungs are 
carbonic acid in the form of a gas, water in the form of 
vapor mixer] with certain organic marrer, and slight traces 
of amrnonia, also a gas. The air which reaches the lungs 
contains two gases, oxygen and nitrogen. The former is 
the life-giving element. Undiluted oxygen is so strong that 
if we place an animal in a jar of this gas it is exhilarated 
for a little whfle, and runs about with great animation, but 
it very soon dies--chemically burnt to deatb. Nature bas 


provided against this by diluting the oxygen with nitroge, 
an inert gas. These gases exist in the air in the propor- 
tion of one part of oxygen fo four parts of nitrogen. There 
is also of necessity, since animals are constantly breathing if 
out, a trace of carbonic acid gas. 
There exists a well-known chemical law amongst gases that 
when separated on]y by a thin moisi animal membrane, they 
will commingle. Such an arrangement is round in the lungs 
--a very t|dn membrane or partition, on the one side of 
which are tbe gases of the air and on the other the gases 
in the h5pure blood. The process of exchange is therefore 
easily understood. The blond gives up its car}nic" acid, its 
watcry vapor with the organic matter dissolved in it and 
a trace of ammonia» while it receives in return a new 
supi»ly of oxygen, which is carried to the heart and thence 
distributed to the tissues. The air in parting ith the 
required oxygen, receives from the blood its elements of 
impurity, and these escape with the expired air. Carbonic 
acid gas will hot support combustion, that is, a lighted 
candle will go out if placed in a jar filled with this gas. 
The saine will happen if we breathe into a jar and dip in 
a lighted taper, hence we know this gas is present in the 
breath. Watery capot can be detected by breathing on a 
mirror or any highly polished sulstance. It collects more 
readily in a cool room ; indeed, in very cold weather it 
condenses so rapidly that we can sec our own breath as 
we walk in the open air. Thc organic matter that escapes 
by the lungs rapidly changes and becomes putrid. Breathe 
into a jar, close if and put it asidc. In a few hours it will 
bave a very tank smell, owing to the presence of decomposed 
organic marrer. 
9. The ti:ffects of Impure Air.--It may be tken for 
granted generally that anything the body casts off would, if 
retained, injure the system. Be-breathing the saine air over 


and over again would soon destroy lire. "The Black tole of 
Caleutta" wa a dungeon in which there were only two 
narrow windows. Here one hundred and fifty-six English 
soldiers were shut up, with scarcely room enough to hold 
them. _A_t the end of eight hours only twenty-three remained 
alive. During a storm ai sea, a captain ordered the hatches 
closed and in six hours ninety of the passengers were dead. 
The high diffusive power of gases under ordinary conditions 
prevents 8uch calamities. The carlnic acid gas spreau 
rapidly throughout the surrounding air» so that if the space 
in which we are breathing is hot te»o confined, or too tightly 
closed up, it quickly becomes so diluted as to do no harm. 
To prevent its too great accumulation in the atmosphere 
there is a wise provision of nature by which plants and 
trees take in carbonic acid as we do oxygen, and give out 
oxygen a we do carbonic acid. In some places carb«jnic 
acid gas is found in such large quantities that if is nvt 
readfly diffused or used up, and collects in great volumes. 
We find this ai the bottom of old wells, over fermentation 
vats, or in the "choke damp" of coal mines. 
If is estimated that from twenty to thirty cubic inches of 
air enter the lungs ai each breath, or from three hundred to 
four hundred cubic feet in twenty-four hours. By a knowl- 
edge of these facts, if may r:adily be determined how much 
cubic space is required for school-rooms, churches, and other 
public buildings. 
It has been observed that unbreathed air containing the 
saine percentage of carbonic acid as the vitilted air of a close 
living room, is hot so poisonous in its effects upon the system. 
Itis evident, therefore, that if is important to get rid of the 
organic matter coming off from the lungs and the skin. 
In cities and towns there are other impurities in the air 
which are dangerous to health. Sewer-gas, poisoned air from 
cess-pools and drains, the impure air from manufacturing 


places, such as chemical works, soap and bone factories, 
are all harmful, and often spread such dioeases as cholera, 
typhoid fever and diphtheria. "Disease germs" float in the 
air, and are carried from place to place. 
. Ventilation.--Of the many sources of impurity we 
bave already ven enough to show the necessity for a con- 
stant and abundant supply of pure, fresh air in dwelling 
houses, schools, halls, churches, etc. The rapidity with 
which the oxygen in a room is talen up will depend upon 
t.he number of persons occupying the room. We must also 
take into consideration the amount consumed by rires, gas 
and lamps. Then, too, it must be remembered that each 
indiidual is ving off a quantity of impure material, which 
will accumulate and become foul. The drowsinea% headache 
and general feeling of lan¢mor and discomfort experienced in 
a badly-ventilated room are attributable rather to the pre 
ence of this noxious matter than to the want of oxygen. 
No system of ventilation is complete unless, in addition to 
entrances for fresh air, there are exits for foul ai_v. 
Itis estimated that each indiidual should have for his 
allowance about eight hundred cubic feet of fresh air, and 
that this should be renewed at the rate of one cubic foot 
per minute. To renew this in sufficient quantity, without 
draught and without lowering the temperature, is the great 
object to be attained by ventilation. No system is perfect 
that does hot fulfil these requirements. 
In summer, little difficulty is met with where there are 
plenty of windows and doors. These give lots of space for 
the entrance and outflow of air. ]esides, in warm weather 
it is not necessary to keep the heat confined in the room, 
and as the temperature of the room and the outside air are 
nearly alike, draughts are not very noticeable, and, .if felt, 
are not so severe, the atmosphere being ft and mild. The 
winter season is the rime when proper ventilation is most 

RESPmAOg. k 101 
needed. Doors and windows cannot b left open with im- 
punity. During recess, 6r whenever a room is unoccupied 
for a short time, they should be thrown open for a few 
minutes, but, strictly speaking, the air should be warmed 
before it is brought into the room, and the foui air drawn 
off through openings in the walls. These openings should be 
large, and placed low down, so as hot to carry off the newly 
admitted fresh air, which, being warm, rapidly ascends. 
Various systems of ventilation exist from which we may 
choose, but in making a selection expert advice should be 
followed. In this connection it may be stated that dwellings 
should never be built over soli which is polluted by organic 
matter, such as decaying vegetable matter. Decomposition 
of animal and vegetable material lu attended with the pro- 
duction of poisonous gases. XVhea a dwelling is placed over 
such matter, foui gases will rise and penetrate the building. 
In winter, especially, the heat of the house tends to draw 
those gases through the lower floor, when they will ascend 
intc ail parts of the house. 
10. How the Heat of the Body is kept up.--Body- 
heat is generated or produced by the oxidation or burning 
of certain materials in the body. The heart and ltmgs are 
hot stores for providing heat and distributing it to the body, 
but by their combined influence the red corpuscles of the 
blood are moee capable of producng changes in the system 
which result in heat. They are the oxygen carrers and 
ve it out to the tissues, where it unites with certain 
elements in the form of combustion. The mysteries of lire 
have not so far been revealed sufficiently to show exactly 
in what proportion certain materials form the fuel. Not 
unlikely it is to some extent the worn-out material, but 
chiefly the refuse of nutrition. The evidences of economy 
shown in the human body, and in its various functions, 
support the belief that it is the remnants of the nutritious 


material afoer the cells composing the body bave received 
what they require for their growth ° and development, which 
form a large pat of the fuel of the body. The broken- 
down cells which bave ïormed a part o the living structure, 
like a wornut building, may be stiil used as fuel, but af 
the sme time we know that when much heat is carried 
off from the body, as in cold climates, there is a desire 
for carbonaceous food. 
While the lungs are hOt the source of heat, they are the 
pooEal by which the oxygen necessary for combustion enters 
the body, and if the lungs rail in their duty the supply of 
heat to the body is affected. Sec how a brsk walk in the 
open air, by pr«Mucing a more rapid breathing, starts the 
flame of lire into a greater glow. 
11. The Heed of Clothing.--The production of heat 
in the body, and its l«s by radiation, et., are so evenly 
Ilanced that the internal temperature in health varies but 
a trifle. A man may travel from the extreme norh, where 
it is intensely cold, down to the hot climate of the Equator, 
and hot vary one degree of heat within his body The ther- 
m«,meter will register close upon the normal heat, which is 
98 ° F. We wear clothing to help in adapting ourselves 
to the varying climates. In cold climates, plenty of warm 
woollens and furs are needed to prevent the body-heat from 
escaping. In hot climates, light goods open in texture are 
more suitable, because they help to conduct off the body-heat, 
while they protect the skin from the rays of the hot sun. 
12. Effects of Alcohol on Respiration.--When speak- 
ing of the effects of alcohol on the skin, we noticed that it 
caused a dilatation of the capillaries ail over the system. 
We are now able t understand what this means with regard 
to the lungs. A dilated condition of the almost endless 
number of capillaries surrounding the thousands upon thou- 
sands of air cells would mean the loading of the lungs with 


a large amount of extra blood, which, if frequently repeated 
or kept up for a length of rime, would cause a cangestion of 
those organs. How often do we hear of excessive drinkers 
having attacks of severe cold, pleurisy and inj¢»nmation of 
the lungs, which, if not immediately fatal, may lead on to 
that most dreaded disease---consumTtion. 
Besides being predisposed by the use of alcohol to those 
diseases, the inebriate is more subject to them from the fact 
of his more frequent exposure to cold and damp. Often 
going about with his clothes wet and with an empty stomach, 
excepting for the whiskey it contains, it /s little wonder he 
is ultimately overtaken with the seeds of disease which take 
root in one of the most ital parts. 
We have seen further that alcohol decreases animal heat 
and lessens power fo resist cold. A general chill may mean 
a congested condition of some of the internal organs, and 
most probably the lungs. If we drire the blood from one 
part, as, for instance, the skin, it must appear in greater 
quantities somewhere else. 
It is not while the stimulating effect of alcohol is felt that 
a chilt is likely to occur, but after the rapid loss of heat 
by radiation and inactivity of }mdy from general depression 
have lowered the temperature below the normal. Reaction 
in these cases sers in so slowly that it is often many hours, 
and even days, before the man feels the same warmth and 
comf«»rt of body he experienced before his debauch. 
No wonder that such abuse of the system leads to derange- 
ment of function and irregularity of blood supply fo the 
various organs. No wonder that drunkards succumb more 
readily fo epidemic diseases than do total abstainers. It bas 
been observed over and over again in choleraAnfected districts 
there is always a larger percentage of deaths amongst those 
addicted to the use of alcoholic beverages, than amongst those 
who abstain from all such drinks. 


Let us fol|ow up the effects of alcohol on the respiration of 
the moderate though regular tippler. The frequent engorge- 
ment of the capillaries of the lungs leads to a permanent 
dilated condition, with increase of surrounding tissues and 
thickening of the cel| walls. Increase the thickness of this 
partition and immediately the free exchange of gases is 
iaterfered with. The blood is hot properly purified, and 
goes back into the system already loaded with the impuri- 
ties it is intended to pick up. The heart and lungs take 
on increased action, in order to compensate for the loss of 
vitality in the fluid. Breathing becomes more labored and fre- 
quent, and often wheezy. The whole system lacks endurance. 
Lord W«»lseley, on his Red River Expedition, did not allow 
spirits to his men, although they had to work hard and 
were sometimes wet through for days together. VChat was 
the report upon the sanitary condition and behaviour of 
these men ? " Up early, hard af work all day, rowing or 
portaging from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m., with a short interval for 
breakfast and dinner, nothing to eat but salt pork an¢[ 
biscuit, nothing to drink but tea, yet they looked as healthy 
as possible, and when they reached Fort Francis there wm« 
not one sick man amongst them." 
13. Cgarette Smoking.Because a cigarette seems the 
most innocent form of using tobacco, it is often the way a boy 
begins ifs use, while at the same rime it is, perhaps, the most 
harmfu|. The smoke from a cigarette is hot so st.rong nor so 
irritating to' the mucous lining of the mouth as that from a 
cigar or pipe, and, as a conoequence, if is usually inhaled into 
the lungs. In this manner the poison fumes of tobacco, and 
often of other narcotics--as, for instance, olum in a Turkish 
cigarette--enter more directly into the system, and not only 
irritate the lung tissue, but vitiate the blood, and hence the 
whole system. 

F. 33.--Diagram iilustrating the genera] arrangement 
of the Nervous System. 

TH NEaVOçS sYs'rz. 107 



1. The Organs of the Nervous Systèm.--In speaking 
of the nervous system, referenee is moee to the  spinal 
c. the nerve____s distributed to every part of the body, and to 
gangla, found in certain parts. The brain and spinal cord 
are continuous through the large opening at the base of the 
skull. They form the cerebro-spinal cenre or ax/s. Their 
structure is so sort and so easily crushed, it is esential they 
should be well protected; they are therefore inclosed in bony 
ca4ties. They consist of two kinds of marrer, a wtie fibrous 
portion and a gray vascular portion. 
2. The Brain.--The brain is a mass of wh/te fibres, over- 
laid with cells of gray matter, and lelged within the strong 
bony walls of the skul]. It consists of two parts, the cere_- 
 situated at the summit and in front, and the cerebellu_.m, 
placed below and behind. 
The weight of the brain ranges from forty to forty-seven 
ounces in the female, and from forty-six to fifty-three ounces 
in the male. The weight increases rapidly during ear]y child- 
hood. After the seventh year it grows less rapidly. From 
s/xteen to twenty the incremse is stfl] more slow. ]3etween 
thirty and forty the weight begins s]owly to decrease. The 
weight of the brain in man is greater than in any of the 
lower anima]s, except the e]ephant and wha]e. As a general 
ru]e, the size of the brain indicates the /ntellectual capcity 
of the indi4dual, but there are some striking exceptions. 
The size of the cerebrum is a more reliab]e guide in deter- 
mining the mental power, but even this is hot a]ways a 


correct indication of the ment«l capacity. The shape of 
the head affords no guide to the character or mental endow- 
ments, as it may be the result of external pressure. But 
when the front and top parts of the head--that is, that 
portion in front of the ears--are deep, high and broad, it 
is evidence of a large cezbrum, and generally indicative 

of a high degree of brain power. The 

Fro. 3.Upper surface of t.he Brain, shou'ing the 
convolutions and its donble structure. 

skull is hot of the 
same thickness in all 
persons. Over the 
eye-brows there is a 
space between the 
two tables of bone. 
The extent and depth 
of this caity cannot 
be determined by out 
ward observation. A 
prominent forehead 
is often due to a 
large frontal space. 
The fay matter 
covers the white por- 
tion, and is next to 
the bone ; but it is 
not spreax] out on 
an even surface, nor 
does it present on 
its outside a uniform 

surface. There are a number of rounded edges, ealled con- 
volutions, separated by deep furrows. These furrows are 
merely spaces formed by the convolutions dipping down and 
returning back in a sort of a fold, just as a seamstress would 
make a ruffie. These folds vary in depth in different parts 
of the brain and in different persons. The gray marrer hot 
only covers the surface of the convolutions but dips down 


into these dividing lines, so that the two surfaces of the 
gray matter are in contact. The quantity of gray matter 
the brain is the true measure of brain power. 2¢«,t only 
does the depth of the folds vary in different brains, but also 
the thickness of the gray matter. To ascertain, therefi»re, 
the extent and amount of gray matter, it woud be necessal T 
to open out the convoluted nmss and measure its thickness. 
In view of these facts, the value of phrenology, as I,ractised 
by bump-feelers, may be duly estimated. To define a per- 
son's character and mental ability 1,y the outward al,æearance 
of the skull is imI)ssible. In order to arrive at a correct 
estimate, it would be necessary to kn«,w the thickness of the 
skull, the depth of the frontal space, "lae thi«.kness of the 
gray matter, and the depth to which the layer dips down 
between the convolutions. 
,)ç3. Function of the Gray Matter of the Brain.--T. 
gLY matter of the bra_i the__hse of the -ill. Here, in 
measure, is generated the nerve f,,rce. It is the seat of the 
intellectual faculties, the throne of reason. _&t this seat of 
power resides the authority l»y which the body is governed. 
Messages are contiaually arriving in the brain from every 
part of the }x)dy, far and near, regarding the welfare of the 
several parts ordependencies. At these headquarters due 
notice is taken of everything concerning its welfare, and 
orders are issued to muscles and other tissues, by which the 
interests of the body are l«,oked after. The gray matter is 
moee up of minute cells and of vascular tissue. 
4. Function of the White Matter of the Brain.-- 
The white fibrous matter upon which the gTay is laid 
the_d_db'ectiojas and irmtructions from the  pg_w', and by 
white cords laid to every part of the frame, like  telegraph 
wires, transmits the nervous influence to whatever part of the 
body if may be necessary. ]3y the saine nerve wires, ij.]- 
ligence is received from ev_er_ station in the bo_y, even the 


most outlying parts. The force generated by the brain oeils 
and thus employed is like electricity ; but it is something 
more, which no physiologist has yet been able to define. 
5. The Crebrum.--The upper and front part of the 
skull contains the (erebrum} It forms about seven,ighths 
of the total weight of the brMn. If is divided by a deep 
fissure into two halves, the right and left Çtemisplteres.} 
Each hall is in itself a brain, the one half supplementing 
the other, as one hand or one eye does the other. In jury 
to the brain, with loss of br,in substance on one side, does 
hot necessarily cause loss of brain power. 
6. The Cerebellum.--Immediately under the back part 
of the cerebrum, but separated from it by a firm membrane, 
lies the cerebellum, or lesser brain. It Es about the size of 
the fist. The convulutions are hot so irregular as in the 
cerebrum. The gray matter dips down into the white sub- 
stance in parMlel ridge and is so arranged as to {,dve its 
internM appearance a resemblance to a tree with branches 
aztd leav«s. This is called the arbo" (vitve or tree of lire. 
The cerebellum Es the nerve centre for controlling the voltm- 
tary muscle& It is Mso ruade up of two halves, i 
7. The Medulla Oblongata.The medulla oblongat ES 
the upper thickened end of the spinal cord, and forms the 
connecting lik between it and the brairt. It is about an 
inch and a quarter in length, and ES thicker in its upper than 
its lower part. It also ES diided into two symmetricM hMves. 
The medulla oblonata consists of white and gray rentrer. 
The gray matter, which in the brain is on the surface, and 
i the spinal cord ES in the intetor, is coatinued up from the 
latter in the interior untfl it reaches the upper part of the 
medulla, when it bens fo show on the surface. 
The medulla oblongata Es a very important centre, for from 
it pass off the nerves which control breathing, swallowing 
and the action of the heart. Injury her is very sudden and 
serious in its effects. 


8. The Coverings of the Brain.--Three membranes 
envelop the brain, an oute.r, mi.ddle and inner. The outer is 
closely attached to the bone, and forms the periosteum. It is 
a tough, strong membrane, composed of fibrous and connec- 
tive tissue. Besides lhing the skull, it forms a strong upright 
partition between the two hemispheres of the cerebrum, and 
also the floor upon which the back part of this portion of the 

Fro. 35.--Vertiçal section of the Brai9. 

brain rests. This floor for the cerebrum is the roof for the 
The rimer membrane is a rhin, firm tissue, in close contact 
with the brain, and dipping down with it into the furrows. 
It is abundantly supplied with meshes of blood-vessels, and 
many of these extend into the brain substance to nourish it. 
The middle is a very thin membrane, so thin that it bas 
been likened to a spider's web. If envelops the brain loosely, 
and is more or less separated from the other membranes by 
loose tissue and by fluid- The quantity of fluid variea in 



different parts of the brain, and according to the fulness of 
the blood-vessels. n 
9. Protection of the Brain.--The provision ruade to 
protect the soft yielding brain from concussion requires some 
notice. We have spoken of the protection afforded by the 
smooth, round skull, with its two tables thickened and 
strengthened at the most exposed parts. Within the skull, 
this jelly-like mass does hot lie like a lump of jelly. It is 
supported in several ways. The front part rests upon a 
shel ing of bone, the roof of the nasal cavity. The middle 
lobes have each a snug little cavity of their o n, and the back 
part rests on the flooring of membrane. The upright parti- 
tion pre ents one hemisphere from pressing upon the other, 
and is a supporting column. Within the brain substance 
itself are a number of small cavities containing fluid, and 
these cavities communicate with the outer spaces. By ghis 
arrangement the pressure is equalized, and as the fluid natu- 
rally tends towards the lowest parts, the brain in reality rests 
upon a perfect water-bed. 
Complete as this is, it is hot the whole of that all-wise 
arrangement by which the nerve centres are protected. The 
cavities of the brain communicate with the cavity of the 
spinal canal, so that the fluid can pass from one to the other. 
Hence it is called the cerebro-spinal ]luid. If the blood 
supply in the head is from any cause excessive, some of this 
fluid finds its way out of the brain along the cord into the 
spinal canal. When the blood pressure within the brain is 
lessened, the fluid wells up again to occupy the space. Thus 
the equilibrium is constantly maintained. 
10. The Spinal Cord.--Safely enclosed in the bony 
canal formed by the yertebroe is the second portion of the 
cerebro-spinal centre. Itis a cylindrical cord of nerve tissue 
about three-quarters of an inch in diameter and seventeen 
inches long, tapering at its lower extremity. It does hot 


nearly fill up the canal. White and gray matter make up 
the cord, as in the brain, but the white matter is placed 
outside and the gray within. It commences at the large 
opening at the base of the skull, the part above this being 
the medulla oblongata. 
The spinal cord is composed of two lateral halves, f«»rmed 
by a fissure in front and behind. From each half nerves 
branch off, and dividing and sub-di4ding, are distributed 
to the trunk and limbs of the body. 
Strrounding the cord are mernbranes similar to th«»se 
the brain, only the outer membrane is not attached to thc 
|»Jne, as lu the brain. Such attachment would prevent thc 
several motions of the spine. This outer-membrane «,f the 
spinal cord is a loose sheath, attached t the t«,p and at 
intervals to the }Jny walls. Viïthin this sheath is the 
cerebro-spinal fluid, s« that the cord is :irtually suspended 
in af, flexible tube of fluid, and is thus protected from injm T 
or shock. 
11. The Nerves.--Rurming throughout the body every- 
where can be f«und slender, white, glistening cords. T]wse 
are the nerves. They look somewhat like the tendons ,f the 
muscles, only smaller. They are not so tough and strong. 
A nerve trunk is nmde up of a number of fibres running side 
by side, like the threads in a skein of silk. These fibres are 
individual ner-es which, b«,und f«»r the saine locality, are 
held together by connective tissue in a single trunk. 
]3esides the nerf'es which corne off from the brain and 
spinal cord, there are others which have their centre in knots 
of ner'e tissue scattered through the ,dy, called 
These are all connected together and form the syml»atltetic 
. There are _therefore three clases of nerves, 
crql and sympatltetic. All three classes convey impre 
smns «»f a twofold lind. There are those fibres along which 
impressions travel to the brain, and by which it is ruade 


conscious of vhat is going on. These are called 
nerves. Also, fibres by which impressions travcl from the 
brain and cause muscles to contract or colis to take on 
incrcased action. These are cLlle(1 moto..__r nerves. 
12. Spinal Nerves.--Thiirs of nervcs are given 
off hy the spinal cord. The openings in the l»nes «f the 
spine on each side allow them to pss out. Each nerve 
two roots, one in front and one behind. The anterior root 
CmLists «,f motor fibres, the posterior of scnsory fibres. The 
two ro«»ts unite or are bound t«»gether in one sheath. If thc 
antcrior roof were cut or destroyed by disease, the person 

Flo. 36.--Section ol Spinal Cord, with roots of spinal nerves. Front view. 

would lose the power of motion in the part supplied by that 
nerve, that is that part would be paralyzed. If the posterior 
root were divided, the power of feeling would be lost. The 
spinal nerves, after leaing the spinal column, are formed 
int,» several groups, where they join together and then branch 
off to different parts. This collection of nerves is called a 
13. Cranial Nerves.--Arising from the base of the 
brain, the medulla oblongata, and one pair from the upper 
part of the spinal cord, are the twelve pairs of cranial 
nerves. They all emerge from the skull, through small 
channels in the bone. blearly ail of these nerves have their 


deep ortzin m the mcdulla oblongata, althougl, the superficial 
origit of some of thcm is some distance off. 
I'HE FIRSï PAIR are known as Lhe  
smel. They pass out through the roof of the nose, and arc 
distributed to tac ling of the 
TuE SECOO PAra, or c ns, arc di :ributed te, the 
eye-bMls, and are the ncrves of siç,n. These ncrves 
ps directly f, rwar, l, one t,» each eye, but coss fibres with 
ch other belote they leave the skull, makhg '. clo utoa 
tweet the eyes. 
l,ply the various muscles by which the eyes are mved. 
Theoe are caHed the/.) 
THE FIFTH PAIR ara cd the'tra ç»n acC«Unç ,,f each 
dividing into thtee br;rnches. These are the largest nerves 
gixen off from the brai and sut,ply the skin of the f;rce attd 
s,»me of the deeper parts, such as the eth, r,,f of m,»uth, 
s«)ft palan, tngme, etc. One branch supplies the see of 
t. If  ually some of the branches of these nerves that 
are affect  people who surfer from neuralgia of the face 
and tooth-he. 
Trie SEVrT PXm, or faciql, are the movg nerves of ail 
the muscl of expreion in the face. They usually 
 pedect uson and cause the muscles  draw evenly, as 
laughg, sng, whistlg, etc. When one of theoe nerves 
 paralyz if gives a ve d expreion to the face. 
THE EIGHTH PAIR, orgaudityJ ps  the er eam, and 
are the nerves of heg. 
TE tT rata, orlosso-Tryngl , are dtfibud  the 
muco membrane of the pha and neighboring par. 
THE TENTH PAIR, or(eumgastr are the most widely 
dtfibut of ail the craal ne. They send branches 
the dpi, lungs, llet, smoeh, hea, etc. 


Tnv. v.LEvv..wrn PAIR are called the ao/, because they 
join the tenth pair. They also supply the e. 
Trie r V.Lrrn PAII are called the lal, or regulators 
of the tonue. 
14. The Sympathetic System.--In this system we bave 
the nerves of organic lire. Itis a double chain of ganglia 
xth nerves connecting then They are situated on eazh side 
of the backbone, from the head to the lot'er extremity of the 
spine, xrith extensions into the chest and abdomen. They 
consist of sort, ¢,ray marrer, and supply the organs on 'hich 
life depends, as the stomach, luns, heart, etc. They control 
the blood-vessels, and bave frequent connections with the 
cranial and spinal nerves. Blushing is a sympathetic act, 
allowing the blood-vessels of the face to enlarge and fill with 
blood. Fear, on the other hand, blanches the face, by the 
sympathetic nerx'es contracting the blood-x-essels and drixfing 
out the blood. 
This intimate relationship of all the nerves of the body, 
keeping ex'ery part in free communication and in close 
sy,npathy with every other part, explains the desinatio 
"sympathetic system." By the s)mapathetic system, thc 
brain bas free intercourse with every part of the human 
frame, and by thi link exercises control over ail the im- 
portant functions and x-ital operations of the body. 
/ri5. Growth and Development of the Brain.--As we 
bave seen, the rowth of the brain in early childhood is very 
rapicL As years advance, the increase in general bulk is hot 
so marked. There is usually, however, a continuous growth, 
but if is larely confined to the ray mat.ter. As in other 
structures of the body, so in the brain, proper exercise is 
necessry. The amount of ray mat.ter, with the correspond- 
ing amount «,f intellectual strenth, depends largely on a due 
exercise of the faculties of the mind. The amount and 
of exercise should be regulated by those properly trained and 


educated to discharge so important a duty. Wqai)e aiding in 
the development of the mind, let us remember itis necessary 
to keep the body in a sound state. The various organs must 
be in a sound condition to perform their proper functions. 
The body itself must be supplied witb the requisite food. 
The blood must be duly purified by the constant supply of 
pure air. The muscles must be daily exercised. The skin 
must be kept clean. In a word, noue of the functions of life 
must be wanting in a healthy performance of their respective 
duties. To exercise the brain, and puy no regard to the body 
generally, is sure to result in unhealthy development. This 
is particularly the case in early childhood. 
All children are hot born with the same power for brain 
development. Some are born without the germs for much 
?uture brain power or active intelligence. Others are born 
-ith the elements which produce very fertile minds. The 
,'areful teacher will discriminate between these two classes, 
end he wfll rate the varying grades of capacity in the young 
under his control. He will be guided by this consîderation 
in directing the mental exercises allotted to each. A bright, 
9tive mind requires no ur-4ng, and often should be held in 
restraint ; while the slugg4sh brain must be stirred by encour- 
gement and stimulated by example. 
Overwork of a too active brain is sometimes the direct 
cause of acute diseuse of that organ, with a fatal termination. 
lu other instances, too much brain-work leads to degenera- 
tion of the over-grown gray matter, and the promising cbild 
becomes slugsh in mind or deficient in intellect, and even 
in some cases an idiot. It must never be forgotten that 
physical exercise is just as important to the growing child 
as brain-w, rk, and in many cases more so. hen a quick, 
clever child becomes indifferent to play, and prefers to sit in 
dreamy idleness, his brain is hot in a hcalthy condition and 



requires careful attention. 1o child or youth should be 
allowed to isolate himself. 
The same uniformity of exercise in brain and body gener- 
ally must be observed all through the active years of life. If 
the ardent student, in preparing himself for an examination, 
fails to take physical exercise and give his brain an oppor- 
tmfity to rest, the chances are he -.ill not only fail in his 
examination, but permanently impair his mental strenth by 
the over-work of the brain. 
//16. Rest and Sleep.oEhe necessity for rest at stated 
periods is most imperative. Brain work will be better done 
when due attention is paid fo re-mlar test. It is the same as 
in the use of muscles. The skilled workman can continue his 
employment only for a certain rime. The laborer does more 
and better work when he takes an occasional rest Besides 
thLs voluntary rest of the brain, nature has provided a test 
which must be taken by everyone. In sound sleep the brain 
gets complete and perfect rest. Any attempt to shorten the 
hours of unconscious repose is a violation of the laws of 
health. Nature will not be cheated of its "sweet restorer, 
balmy sleep." 
But sleep is also essential for body rest and for repair of 
the whole system. During those restful hours in bed, the 
circulation is lowered and the heart-beats are fewer. JuCt 
as it is less tiring for us to walk than to run, sois it much 
casier for the heart to beat at the rate of fifty or sixty time-s 
a minute, as it does in sleep, than at seventy or eighty vhen 
we are moving about. And again, while we are asleep nature 
is busily at work building-up and repairing the tissues, and 
restoring the energy we have exhausted during the day. 
The amount of sleep demanded by nature is hot the same 
in all persons. ]Iore sleep is necessary for the young than 
for the old, and for those whose emp]oyment is arduous than 


for the idle. Sleep Lu the natural rest of ail organs. The 
more ail the organs are used the more test they need. The 
organs of the child are particularly busy. They have to 
sustain their proper functions and also assist in the general 
building up of its body, and hence a child needs lots of sleep. 
From six to eight, and in the young, ten h,»urs of sleep out 
of the twenty-four, is hot too much. Girls need more œsleep 
than boys. Itis always an inju D" to l»e awakened out of a 
sound sleep, and it is particularly so with the infant. ]tis 
extremely doubtful if at any rime anyone can take too much 
sleep. ,  ) 
17. Th¢-Abus¢ of Narcotics.--Slêeplêssness may be 
due to a variety of causes. Whatever the cause, if should 
Le attended to and removed as early as possible. _A serious" 
cause of hmbility to sleep s over-w;u'k of the 1)rain and 
mental worry. In such a case a person should We up all 
brain work at once, and test long enough to allow the l»rain 
tissues to recover their tone. In addition to absolute rest, 
change of scene and diversion f the mind are most desirable. 
In no case should opiates or ether narcotics be used to 
enforce sleep. To ramper witix such drugs is unsafe. They 
are injurious fo anybody, but particularly so to infants and 
young children. _ll the "soothing syrups," "cordials" and 
"drops" contain opium, and should never be allowed a place 
in the family medicine chest. Sleeping draughts paralyze 
the nerve centres and impair digestion, and worse than ail, 
there is always the rislr of an over-dose, which usually results 
in death. ]t is ver), unwise to use any mediche, especially 
any of the narcotics, such as opium, morphine, chloral, 
bromide, etc., unless ur_cler the guidance of a physician. 
18. Effects of Alcohol on the Brain and Nervous 
System.--$Vhen alcoh,l is taken, its direct effect Lu up,n 
the brain and the nervous system generally. It is primarily 
through the netwous system that it exerts its evil influence 


on the different organs and tissues of the body. The efrects 
of alcohol are conveniently divided into four stages. 
TIE IIRST STAfr;.--rhe first effect upon the nervous 
system is t,» weaken the capillary nerves, and thus allow 
the small hlood-vessels in ail parts of the body to dilate. 
This produces, as we have already said, a general redness 
of the skin, most noticeable in the hands and face. But 
the saine condition of the small blood-vessels exists inwardly 
 is found on the surface of the body. There is increased 
circulation in the tiny blood-vessels throughout the gray 
matter and amongst the white fibres wnich causes an exalta- 
tion of the mental faculties and a general exhilaration. This 
constitutes the first stage. 
If its use is now discontinued the poisonous effects pmss off, 
the hlood-vessels regain their natural size, and the normal 
conditi,»n of the system is restored. But even this temporary 
stimulati,»n is followed by reaction, and the indiidual feels 
a corresponding depression or prostration, while the aching 
head shows that tlm brain tissue has been exposed to the 
ravages of an injurious agent. If addicted to the use of 
alcohol for some time, though only to the extent of this 
first stage, serious results may follow. The coats of the 
small blood-vessels become weakened and diseased. The 
hcreased force of the heart may burst the weakened coat 
and allow the blood to escape into the brain substance, and 
by pressure render the -icthn unconscious. He has, in fact, 
heen seized with an apoplectic fit, and if the escaped hlood 
is sufliciently large in amount, death will be the issue, or if 
life be spared he will almost certainly lose much of his 
nental power. 
T¢. Sco ' .--If the individual conthue to imbibe 
alcohot, tlm condition of the first stage gradually changes 
and other symptoms appear. The voluntary muscles become 
affected They are no lonffer under the complet¢ control of 

T RVOçS S¥ST. 121 

the mind. The effect upon the brain is such that the person 
feels "jolly." But he loses his mental balance and says 
and does things he would hot say or do if in his sober seses. 
The heart's action is quickened, and the bl«Jod, clmrged with 
alcohol, is pumped into the brain with increased force. 
If even now he fortunately cesses to drink, the system 
will struggle back to a natural state. Sturdy efforts will be 
marie to curry the poison out of the system. Corresponding 
reaction agahx sets in. The headache becomes a pain, the 
organs supplied by the cranial nerves are disordered. He 
has a sick stomach, feels generally out-of-sorts, and very 
likely shamed of his intemperance. The dangers mentioned 
in connection with the first stage attend the second stage in 
a greater de,e. o 
TtE___THIID ST_6..--Continuing to drink after the second 
stage has been reched will, in due time, produce intoxication, 
a condition in which the individual ceases to be a rational 
being. The nervous system no longer controls the vital organs 
of the body. They are ail filled with blood, and are incapable 
of performing their functions. The mind is obscured, and 
only the animal part of man remains in action. When thus 
intoxioEted, the person may be silly and full of ridiculous 
talk, or shout or laugh immoderately. Perhaps he will boast 
about himself in a most untruthful mariner, or he may bewail 
imagdnry griefs and shed teurs of supposed sorrow. On the 
other hand, he may become passionate, cruel and quarrelsome, 
so ms to do serious acts or commit crimes altogether contrary 
to his nature when sober. If he stauds or attempts to walk 
he bas no control over the muscles, and reels or staggers on 
his way, or falls helpless to the ground. 
He has uow lost all the elements of manhoE«l, and is 
"beastly drunk," and yet is it hot a libel on the beazt of 
the field, whose only drink is that proided by the C,'eator, 
t h,ve  n» thus degraded, compared to him  In this 


condition the whole of the vital organs are in a state of 
disease. The heart's action is feeble and unsteaxly. The heat 
of the body, ,a'hich in previous stages was slightly increased, 
at least on the surface, is now reduced below the natural 
temperature. The blood-vessels are over-loaded, from want of 
proper circulation ; a state of lethargy sçts in, and he becomes 
etticely unconscious. The poor mffortunate is now "dead 
drunl," and the f,urth stage is reached. 
TrE FOUi_Tu S.0E.--A person "dead drunk" may be said 
to ])e at the postal of death itself. Everything that charac- 
terizes the man is dead. The senses are all dead. The 
voluntary muscles are the saine as dead. 1Raise the arm, 
and it will rail heli,less , like that of a dead person. Place 
your hand on the surface «,ï his »dy, and it feels as cold 
as death. Excepthag f,»r the heavy, labored breathing and 
rattling i the throat, he might be considered actually deaxl. 
But there remains just enough ritality in the nervous system 
to act upon the respirttory centre and keep the heart in 
action in a feeble, uncertain way. Ail the other powers of 
lire are entirely in abeyance. Pr person in such a state is 
liable to die at any moment. The dose of alcohol he bas 
taken may be suflàcient to extinguish $-hat little lire remains, 
and thus close the fourth stage. /-Iis utter helplessness also 
exposes hian to death by accident. Lying out in the bitter 
col(l, he readily perishes. If he falls into water, he bas no 
power to save himself, and drowning ends the scene. Com- 
pletely dazed, he stumbles about and, perhaps, falls in the 
middle of the road or on a railway track, and there he lies, 
unconscious of the approachlng vehicle or train which will 
crush out what lire remains. 
Sir Benjamin Richardson, in classifying the effects of alco- 
hol haro four stages, says, when referring to the f,urth: 
"The last stage of all, the stage just sh,rt of death, thë 
fourth stage of the action of alcohol, is clearly hot only un- 


natural, but a stage of dreadful disorder and of danger. It 
is clear, surely, to the simplest mind, to the mind of the 
youngest child who can read this b«»Jk, that a person who is 
/ying down, unable to more naturally, unable to hear plain]y, 
unable to see correctly, unable to speak distinctly, and unable 
to do anything more than breathe and live--it is clear, I 
repeat,, to the simplest mind, that a person so placed must 
be in a state of danger and diseasë as bad as any that could 
be caused by those accidents we ail shrink from, accidents 
that xvound and stun and kill. 
"If we look at the whole course of the action of alcohol 
from the first stage to the last, we can see no good whatever 
that is supplied by it. Every step that seems harmless is, at 
best, nonsensical ; and every step that seems to be hurtful, is 
hurtful beyond anythixag that I can explain." 
19. Results of the Use of Alcohol.--It will be ob- 
served that the four consecutive stages gradually merge from 
one into the other. There is no distinct line to mark the close 
of the one and the b%dnning of the next, and there is no 
uniformity amongst those who drink. There are man), who 
daily use alcoholic driaks who do hot experience the several 
stages described, and there are some who never take enough 
to pass beyond the first stage, but in any of these there is 
always the danger of overstepping the limits each bas pre- 
scribed for himself. The taste f«»r such drinks, when once 
estab]ished, is with diflîculty,  many cases, overcome. Wit]l 
many others the desire to take more and more is irresistible. 
There are hot a few who never take enough to cause intoxica- 
tion, but are more or less under the influence of alcohol every 
day. They bave acquired the habit--in other words, the 
brain has undergone certain subtle changes which constitute 
a disease. Such persons are affiicted with what is known as 
This disease may be acquired in the way mentioned, or it 


may be inhezted. The symptoms are hot always the same. 
While some keep the system saturated daily by oft-repeated 
doses, others will only periodically give way fo the morbid 
impulse. This iusatiable desire ïor intoxicating litiuors af 
stated intervals is called dipsomania, and in many cases it 
is so strong tlat a man's whole mental power and moral 
nature are subjected to its evil influence. Recovery ïrom 
this àisease is possible, but, sad ix) say, it is hot common. 
The best and surest treatment is of a moral character, aiàeà 
by suitable nerve tonics. 
Alcoholism i.s a brain disease, and i.s most common among 
brain-workers, xvho, being engaged perhaps in ambitious or 
exacting pursuits, and passing through hours of worry, risk 
the temporary relief which a stimulant gives. It is obvious 
that such cases should, if possible, find some occupation in 
which there would hot be the saine strain on the nervous 
system. A prolongeà rest woulà be better still. A complete 
change of place and surrounding influences should be ruade. 
It xvould be easy to point out other forms of disease arising 
from the use of alcohol, but the picture already presented 
should be sufficient to satisfy anyone of the terrible evils it 
brings to those who indulge in its use. 
20. Tobacco.--The action oï tobacco on the nervous 
system is that of a narcotic poison. Its active principle is 
nicotine, a very strong and rapidly fatal poison. A single 
drop given to a rahbit will produce death in a few minutes. 
The habitual smoker does hot as a fuie experience any alarm- 
ing effects from the nicotine he absorbs, because his system 
has become useà to it. Ask the saine smoker how lle felt 
after hs first smoke. He will tell you, for he remembers it 
well, that he turned sick ; the skin became pale, and a cold, 
clammy perspiration stood out on his forehead; his muscles 
weakened, he trembled ail over, and his brain reeled so that 
he could hot stand, The depresioa was alarming; he wa 


completely prostrated. It was only after repeated trials, and 
when he had got the system accustomed to it, that he could 
take his smoke with comfort. 
bVhi]e it is possible to train the system to tolerate the 
poison to such an extent as not to cause any immediate 
prostration, there is hardly a smoker who does not feel at 
times a certain amount of nervous depression. If may be 
a slight trembling of the muscles, causing the hands to be 
un.steady, or if may be a weak, trembling action of the heart, 
with a very rapid pulse, sometimes irregular. This action 
of tobacco on the heart has become so noticeable as to be 
known by the medical profession as "the tobacco heart." 
Then again he may surfer from a form of nemTous dyspelasia , 
with nausea and loss of appetite, or a general irritability 
the nervous system, with headaches, weakened memory, in- 
paired vitality, and loss of flesh. 
It makes little difference in what form tobacco is taken 
whethcr in smoking a pipe, cigar or cigarette, taking it in thc 
f«Jrm of snuff, or chewing tobacco, the nicotine is absorbed, 
and it is only a question of the amount in each case. It is 
true some forms are more cleanly and less offensive to our 
friends than others, but in any form it is injurious, and is at 
best a selfish and a filthy habit. 
21. Evil Effects of Tobacco on the Young.--Tobacco 
has a more pr,Jfound effect upon the nerves of a young lad 
than on a q'own person, because his nervous system is more 
sensitive and more easily impressed. It is a hundredfold 
more injurious in youth. It weakens the system and tends 
to impair muscular and mental activity. The whole body is 
saturated with a poison, and cannot grow and develop as 
it should. The use of tobacco in any form by young persons 
should be severely condemned. Self-preservation is the first 
law of nature. Let us protect ourselves against this enemy 
by shunning it altogether  . 




1. The Five Special Senses.--In addition to the com- 
mo SUpldy of ncrves of ordinary sensation st«tioned cvery- 
where, like sentinels, to guard the body and keep us idormed 
«f the condition of all its members and organs, there are 
special nerves for aCtluainting us with what exists outside of 
ourselves. These nerves go to supply certain organs which 
are specially adapted to receive impressions from the outer 
world. There are rive special senses--taste, smell, sight, 


Fro. 37.--Upper surface of the Tongue, 
,howing the pspilloe. 

hearing and touch. 

2. The Sense of Taste.-- 
The tongue is the orgaa of the 
special sense of tste. If we 
examine the tons-me carefully, 
we can see on its surface a hum- 
ber of small projections. These 
vary in size. At the back they 
are quite large. On the sides 
and at the tip they appear as 
small red 10oint while on the 
surface generally they are very 
minute and thickly set. These 
little papilloe are the taste points, 
and into them can be traced the 
tiny endings of the nerve of 
taste. In the act of tasting, 


th_e papilloe start up, gi4ng the coat of the tongue a velvety 
In ordcr to faste any substance it must be in solution. 
We cannot faste the swectness of sugar until somc part of 
it melts on the tongue. Anything that will n-t dissolvc is 
tastelesa The different tmstes seem to bc linfited to certain 
parts of the tongue. For instance, salty and bitter sub- 
stances are best tasted at the }Jack part, while the tip takes 
notice of sweet substances and the cdges best appreciate 
acids. "Ve have natural tastes and we have acquired tastcs. 
In his o,dnal state, man is guided almost solely by thc 
natural serse of tmte in selecting his food. Amongst civi- 
lized pcople there are many acquied tastes. Vhilc the 
sense of taste s intended te» distinguh between what is 
suitable and what is not suitable to enter the st,mach, we 
oftcn violate this sense and take what is hot good because we 
have acquired the taste, lo one will say, hot even the te»per, 
that liquor is agreeable to the taste, even from the very start- 
ing of the habit. The hot, fiery liquor is never agreeable, 
but it s forced upon the delicate taste bulbs, and their 
jud&qnent is imored, until this sense becomes depraved. It is 
possible, also, to train the taste to tolerate, and even to like, 
certain articles of food which at first are hot palatable. 
The appearance of the tongue varies in different persons. 
In some it bas a smooth, soft, even surface. In others it is 
mapped out in sections by deep lines, which intersect each 
other. In a healthy state of the system it is reddish in color, 
but is readily affected by disorders of the stomach, and covers 
over with a whitish or brownish coating. 
In some animals the surface of the tongue is very rough. 
The papilloe are long, and stand out firm and stiff. The car, 
for instance has a rough tongue, while some beasts of prey 
can strip the flesh from the bones of their victims with the 
tongue alone. 


3. The Sense of Smell.--The outward shape of the 
most conspicuous feature of the face needs no description. 
The frame-work of the nose consists of bone and cartilage. 
Fourteen bones enter into the formation of this orgam Four 
plates of bone are so placed as fo forma strong arch, the 
bridge of the nose, capable of resisting considerable outside 
force. Joined to the plates of bone, on either side, are plates 
of cartilage fo form the nostrils. The chamber thus formed 

Fro. 38.--Sectiona] iew o! the lose. 

is large and is divided by a vertical wall into two halves. 
The floor of the nasal cavity constitutes the roof of the mouth. 
;kt the back part of the roof of the nose is a very thin plate 
of bone, on which rests a portion of the brai_n. This bone is 
pierced by numerous little holes, giving it the appearance of 
a sieve. The olfactory nerve, or nerve of smell, lies on this 
bone, and gives off, frc,m its bulb-like end, quantities of little 
filaments, vhich reach the nasal ca ity through these holes 
and spread out on the mucous membrane. 


In each half of the cavity are three small and very spongy 
bones, curved so as to form nearly parallel ridges, and making 
three distinct passages in each nasal cavity. (Fig. 22, p. 65. 
The filaments of the olfactory nerve are spread out on the 
two upper ridges, but hot on the lower. It will be seen from 
this that the sense of smell resides chiefly in the upper part oi 
the cavity, and hence the necessity for taking an extra snifl[ 
when we want to detect a very faint odor. This extra sniff 
sends some of the air through the higher passages. 
The mucous membrane of the nose lines all its passages, 
and is continuous with the lining of the pharynx and wind- 
pipe. This is the most natural and healthy course for the 
air in breathing, because the several passages or warming 
chambers in the nose temper the air as it is drawn in, while 
ai the entrance to the nostrils small hairs grow to strain out 
dust and other impurities from the air. 
4. lunctions of the Nose.--The sense of smell acts in 
conjunction with that of taste. In fact, it precedes taste in 
reco-mizing the properties of any food about to be taken into 
the stomach. It acts a most important part in guarding 
the portal through which the body receives its nourishment. 
Taste seems to depend a good deal upon smell. If our sense 
of smell is not keen, the taste is also defective. Every 
mother knows this when she holds the nose to administer 
a nauseous draught to ber child. Sight also assists taste. 
In fact, without the aid of sight and smell it would often 
be impossible to distinguish substances put into the mouth. 
As stated, the lower portion of the nose takes no part in 
detecting odors. The nerves supplied to this part are not 
from the olfactory, but they do efficient and useful work. 
If the air about to pass inward contains any irritating 
substance, these nerves detect it; sneezing is induced and 
the offending matter is forcibly expelled. The sense of smell 
contributes largely to man's comfort and pleasure. It is ever 

on the alert and reudy to warn him of anything disagreeable, 
offensive or injurious. By it he knows the appetizing qualities 
of many foods. By it he enjoys the fragrance of the flower 
and of choice perfume. 
Itis hot always necessary to bring the substance close to 
the nose to (|etect its odor. Some smells can be recognized 
at a great dtance from their source. ]nisible particle8 
tb,at in the air and rail upon the sensitive membrane of the 
no.,se. Some persorm bave hot a8 acute a sense of smell a 
,,thcrs. Like ail other faculties, it can be educated. Certain 
tribes of Indians, who rely in a great measure upon this 
i,rgan, have an extraordinary sense of smell. The lower 
anima|s, al,, differ in the acutenêss of this organ. The dog, 
esI,ecially the hound, h a wonderul facu|ty for smelllng. 
He will follow on the trail of a fox for mlles guided 0nly by 
t|m scent. 
5. Other Uses.--The cavity of the nose ha 0ther 
flanctiona than those mentioned. It is the ourlet for the 
secretions from the cavities in the cheek bones. Aho, the 
cavity between the plates of bone in the forehead opens into 
the nose and is re|ieved of its secretions. Likewise, when 
the secretion of water in the eyea is excessive, but not 
sufficient to overflow in the form of teara it is carried from 
the inner corner of the eye by a small canal into the nose. 

6. The Sense of Sight.The organ of sight la |odged 
in a cavity ruade up of thin plates of bone joined together. 
tt the bottom of this ca-ity, or socket, as it is ca|led, iz a 
small opening through which the optic nerve pases from the 
brain to the eye. The eye-ball, fitly so called, i about an 
inch in diameter. It is composed of the crystallie lens; a 
jelly-like substance, called the vit'eous hurror, situated behind 
the lens i the aqueous humor in front, and tlae i/ which acts 
as a curtain, through the Centre of which is a/a Opêning, 


the pupil. The eye-ball, or globe, rests Uln a sort cushion 
(»f fat. This gives it an easy support and allows it fo more 
about with the utmost freedom. 
7. The Coats of the Hye.--The eye ha three coats. 
The bk part of the outer covering, the "vhite of the eye," 
is called the sclerotic coat. It i a dent, firm membrane, 
and preserves the shape of the eye. In front the outer coat 

Fro. 39.--The Eye: a, cristalline lens; b, the retina; c, the cornea; 
d, the sclerotic; e, the choroid; g, capsule of lens; ff, oEtreous humor; 
i, iris; k, pupil; o, optic nerve. 
is thin and transparent, and is called the cornva. If i the 
window through which light is admitted. 
The Second coat, the clwroid, line the outer coat ai the 
boek. It is a layer of black substance htended t<» aborb 
the surplus light in order that objects may be clerly seen. 
The third is the re$ina, a delicate membrane ia 'hich are 
distributed the branches of the optic nerve. It is the inner- 
most cot and lies on the choroid. 

8. The Crystalline Lens,--As may be seen in a section 
of the eye-ball, the lens is placed in the front part of the 
globe. It is a flattened, double-curved body, with the flatter 
side in front, resembling two watch crystals of different 
curves placed back to back. IL consists of layer upon layer 
of a soft jelly-like substance, the inner layers being more 
dense than the outer. It is surrounded by a delicate cover- 
ing, which fixes it to the inside of the eye all round. Both 
the lens and its covering are transparent. 
The lens not only aIlows the rays of light to pass through, 
but it draws them nearer together, that when they reach the 
retin they may be brought to a point, or lotus. In t, his way 
ail the rays of light coming from the different parts of an 
object, or ail the objects in the field of our observation when 
we look out, are brought to a focus on different parts of the 
retina, and clearly picture there a miniature of ail that is 
belote the eye. The optic nerve carries this impression fo 
the brain and we see. 
9. The Vitreous Humor.--The greater part of the 
interior of the eye-ball is l/led with the vitreous humor. 
If i8 a rhin, jelly-like substance, ruade up mainly of water, 
with a small quantity of albumen and salts. This liquid is 
contained in compartments formed by the walls of a delicate 
membrane. (Fig. 40.) 
10. The Aqueous Hurnor.--The space between the 
cornea and the lens is filled with the aqueous humor. This 
space is partly divided into two compartments by the iris. 
The aqueous humor is more watery than the vitreous. 
ll. The Iris. -- Floating hx the aqueous humor is a 
circu|ar curtain or disc, caIled the iris, from ifs resembling 
a rainbow in its many colors. It bas an opening in its 
centre, the pupil. The iris is marie up chiefly of muscu]ar 
fibres, and bas a background of coloring marrer. The mus- 
cular fibres are arranged in two layers. In one the fibres 

circle round the iris. When these contracç they narrow the 
pupil. In the other layer the fibres run from the outer 
border of the iris to the free mar&dn of the pupil. When 
these acç they pull back the curtain and dilate the pupil. 
No light can enter the eye excepting through the pupil, so 
that the amount of light admitted is regulated by the iris. 

Fro. 40.--Section of Eye-ball. 

If the light is very bright, the pupil becomes small : if itis 
dim, iç enlarges. 
This ring-like curtain, which is drawn and withdrawn 
according to the intensity of the light, varies in color in 
different persons. The color of one's eye is the color of the 
iris. Blue, gray, black or brown, with the varying shades 
between, are ail due to the color of the iris, except that in 
some persons the pupil is always large and gives the eye a 
dark appearance. 


12. The Eye-lidg--In order that the eyes may serve the 
body, if is necessary they slmuld be placed in a prominent 
position, consequently their front parts are more or less 
exposed. To afford protection to the eyes, and st the saine 
time to shut out the light when too intense, we have the 
eyeAida. They are folds of skin, to which are attached 
delicate muscles for moxing them up and down To give 
firmness to the lids, there la a plate of cartilage in the ïuld. 
At the edge t,f the lids the skin turns in to the lining 
membrane. This membrane Ls called the conjuzctiva, because 
after it has lined the eye-lids f.r a eonsiderable distance l,ack, 
it ïolds on to the eye-ball. It covers the surface of the eye 
from this l»int forward. On the cornes it la extremely 
delicate and transparent. 
The upper eye-lid is larger than the lower, and much more 
movable. The nerve influence to the evedids is wonderfui. 
Their movements are partly voluntary and partly involuntary. 
'e wink continuously while awake. This set, inten«led to 
keep the eye moist and ree from dtLst, is involuntary. We 
can open and shut the eye by a voluntary set when we will, 
but the flash-like closing of the eye when suddenly threatened 
is involuntary. The extreme sensitiveness of the exposed 
parts of the eyo la also a protection. Small particles getting 
into the eye are hot allowed to remain there without causing 
a good deal of pain and irritation. 
The up[r and lower lids corne together st their two 
extremities, forming the outer and inner a9les of the eye. 
The space between the two angles varies in different per- 
sons, and has the effect of making one's eyes appear large 
or small. 
The e/e-lass are short, curved hairs, arranged in one, two 
or more rows along the border of the lids. They shade the 
eye and protoet it from tiny insects, dust and other particlea 
of matter floating in the air. Small oil-glanda in the margina 


of the lids keep the edges smooth and prevent them sticking 
to each other. 
The eye-brows are also shades for the eyes, and he|p to 
protect them from the tierce rays of the sun. These fringes 
of hair incline outwards so as to divert the perspiration from 
the forehead off to the sides and thus prevent it trickling 
down into the eyes. 
13. The Tears.--Whfle we are awake, the eye-ball is in 

almost constant motion 
against the lids, and in 
order that there may be 
no flction, the surface 
is moistened by a wa 
tery fluid which when 
it overflows forms tears. 
This fluid is secreted by 
a gland about the size 
of an ordinary bean, 
situated in a hollow in 
the upper and outer part 
of the socket. This tear- 
gland has several small 
ducts, which open at 
the outer corner of the 

With every movement the eye rubs 

Fo. 41.--The Eye-lashes and the Tear Glands: 
B, tear duct; C, C, tear canais; D, tear sac; (, 
tear gland. 

eye beneath the upper eye-lid. The motion of the eye and 
the winking of the lids spread the fluid over the exposed 
surface. The same movements carry the fluid to the inner 
angle of the eye, where it collects in a small hollow between 
the two lids, and is drained off by small canais, one in the 
upper and one in the lower lid. These canais run inward 
to a sac in tho corner of the nose, and from this sac the fluid 
descends into the nose. Any local irritation of the eye or 
mental emotion, such as weeping or crying, causes more fluid 
to form than can bo carried off by the canais. It overflows 
and runs down the cheeks in tears. 


14. Motion of the Eye-ball.--It is the duty of the eye 
to watch objects from every point--right or left, up or down. 
Its ability to do this depends upon the action of the muscles 
supplied toit. The rapid glance of the eye here, there and 
every$'here is produced by the contraction of one or more 
Six muscles move the eye, and are attachexl to the outside 
of the ball. Four of these are straight muscular bands for 

le. 42.--Muscles of the Eye-ball. 
moving the eye to the right or left, and up or down. They 
all arise from the back part of the socket, near where the 
optic nerve passes in from the brain. These muscles are 
arranged in pairs, and are even]y balanced. The fifth and 
sixth are oblique muscles. The fifth also arises from the 
back part of the socket, and passing forward along the upper 
surface of the eye-ball, its tendon runs through a ring of 
cartilage at the upper and inner border, like a rope through 
a pulley. It then turns and is attached fo the eye-ball. 


The sixth is the opponent of the fifth. It is a short muscle 
arising from the socket near the t«ar sac, and, passing beneath 
the eye-ball, is attached to its outer side. The obli¢lue mus- 
cles rotate the eye as the head is turned, in order that 
objects may be pictured on the saine part of the retina. 
When acting with the straight muscles, they more the eye 
in oblique positions. For instance, the eye can be turned 
outward and obliquely upward. 
Through the combined action of these six muscles the 
various movements of the eye are performed. The wonder 
of this exquisite mechanism is greatly increased when it is 
remembered that the two eyes act together and are moved 
in the same direction at the saine moment. This hamony 
in the action of the muscles of both eyes is maintained by 
the close connection between the nerves supp|ying these 
muscles. If from want of proper nerve supply, «»r from 
weakness or disease, any one of the muscles acts imperfectly, 
the effect is at once noticeable in the nature of a " cast," or 
,, SlUint.', 
15. How we See.--To have a thorough understanding of 
the eye as an optical instrument, it would be neces.ry to 
have a clear knowledge of the properties of light. It must 
here sutIice to sa); that the light, in the form of undulating 
rays, passes through the transparent cornea, then through the 
pupil in quantity accordg to its size, and falling upon the 
len.% converges to a point at the retina. 
The rays of light strike the convex cornea from different 
directions. Those which are straight for its centre pass 
through without any deviation. Of those which corne from 
the different angles, some are too near the outer border of the 
cornea and are reflected back, while others pass in, nd are 
more or less refracted, or brought nearer together. The 
humors of the eye also bring the rays nearer, but the lens 
is the chier instrument of refraction. By reference to Fig. 


43, the direction of the rays from the several points on their 
way to the retina will be clearly seen. 
There is a delicate little muscle in the interior of the eye- 
ball, attached to the membrane, which encloses and holds the 
lens in place. Its use is important. It finds the focus for 
varying distance, just .s a boy pulls his spy-glass in or out 
to got a correct lotus aeeording to the distance. Our eyes 
are arranged naturally for seeing distant objectes. When we 
look at near «,bjeets, this little muscle is brought into action. 
It draws upon the membrane and slaekens it, allowing the 
lens to beeome more rounded. The lens is rapidly adjusted 

Fo. 43.--Diagram showing how the image of an object is formed upon 
the retina, ° 

in this way for va .rying distances, and brings the rays of light 
to a focus exactly on the retina. If the lens be too fiat, the 
rays will hot corne to a focus before reaching the retina. If 
it be too rounded, the rays corne to a focus in front of the 
retina. In either case the eyesight is defective. In the one 
case the person will be far-sighted, and in the other near- 
sighted. The far-sighted person finds relief in convex glasses, 
the near-sighted person in concave glasses. 
It may hot be the fault of the lens that the vays are hot 
brought to a focus on the retina. The eye-ball itself may 


be too shallow or too deep, that in, the retina may be too 
near or too far away from the lens. 
16. Hygicnc of thc Izye.--After middle lire, and as age 
alvances, most persons find their eyesight defective. This is 
commonly due to a loss of power in the little muscle, and the 
lens can no longer adapt itseIf to varying distances. This 
condition should not be neglected. The extra effort to see 
distinctly will male matters worse. Suitable glasses should 
be used without delay. As the years alvance, stronger ones 
will be necessary. This long-sightedness is not uncommon in 
childhood, and may be seen sometime. in several meml)ers 
of the same family, on account of their hafing the saine 
f,»rmation of eye. It would be well for teachers, as well as 
parents, to be on the look-out for such cases, and have the 
defect remedied by ha4ng the child wear suitable glasses, st 
least during study hours. If not attended to, the evil will 
likely increase and may lead to squinting. Shortsightedness 
is also not uncommon, and is said to be on the increase. 
larolonged application to study may bring about this con- 
dition of sight, or constantly holding the book too near the 
eyea. The use of glasses is here also a necesity. Sh«rt- 
sighted children st school are apt to lean f0Jrward over the 
desk. 51ote the habit and serch f0»r the cause. Fine print 
should never be used in schools, nor the eye taxed for any 
length of time in any way. 
Reading as we lie on a couch or on a bed, the prevailing 
custom of reading on the railway train, reading fine type in 
twilight, or in a dim light, are ail habits which should be 
strongly condemned. 
Constitutional diaeasea especially scarlet fever are often 
followed by weakness of sight. After a severe illness the 
eyes should be used with great caution. If reading, or other 
use of the eyea, causes them to ache, or brings on a pain in 
the forehead, it ahould be discontinued st once. 


17. Color-Blindness.--Color-blindness is an inability to 
distinguish colors. It has been ascertained that about four 
persons out of every hundred are thus affected. The colors 
which usually give the most difficulty are red and green, and 
as these are the colors most frequently used in connection 
with the signal lights of railroads and steamboats, it becomes 
a serious matter. 
Color-blindness, in ifs true sense, is usually an inherited 
defect in sight, but, as a ma6ter of fact, children and others 
often fail fo recognSze colors because they bave hot heen 
trained to do so. The faculty of distinguishing colors should 
be cultivated from childhood onward. 

1S. The Sense of Hearing.--The organ of hearing is 
divided into the outer 7tid«lle and inner ear. The outer ear 
comprises that part which stands out prominently on either 
side of the head, and the small tube or canal leading into the 
ho»ne, called the auditory canal. The peculiarly shaped outer 
part, commonly called "the ear" is so constructed fo collect 
sound and transmit if through the auditory canal. It con- 
sists of plates of cartilage covered with skin on both sides. 
The auditory canal is about an inch long, and is lined by a 
continuation, of the skin of the ear. Glands are found in 
this lining which secrete ear-wax, fo moisten and prtatect the 
parts. Fine hairs grow af the outer part of the canal, to 
prevent insects and foreign matter from getting into the ear. 
At the bottom of the canal, stretched across if, is a rhin 
membrane, the drum. Itis this thin membrane that receives 
the sound-waves in the ear. 
19. The Middle Ear.--Beyond the drum is a small 
cavity the middle ear. 14anging across this chamber, from 
the drum inward, is a chain of three very small bones, which 
from their shape, bave been named the ]tammer, the anvil, 
and the stirrup. These bones though so small, are complete 



in their construction and articulate with perfectly formed 
joints, one of which is a ball-and-socket joint. At the bttom 
of the cavity is a sma]l tube, leading from the middle ear to 
the upper and back part of the pharynx. This passage keeps 
up a supply of air to the middle ear. By holding the nose 
and keeping the mouth closed, we can force air up this 
passage. It enters the ear with a sudden click. 
-' fi-;  Zç. " 
,%,,\ I« , 
, :<..; ..... -._..,..,. . .,_:_,.. 
-,_...,._.___.___ .. . .. 
,,'. ',_,-_.,  =-':.,:.;-:£... ',..:: -.., "%t2". 
. ';,"¢: %. .ç ..'  ,- 
FIo. 44.--Section through the Right Ear: M, outer ear; G, auditory canal; 
T, the drum; P, middle ear; O, bones of the ear; /, pharyngeal opening of 
Eustachian tube; V, vestibule; B, a semicircular canal; , the cochlea; A, 
audJtory nerve. 
20. The Inner Ear.--This chamler is somewhat coin-' 
plex, and is sometivaes cal|ed the labyrnt. It is situated in 
a solid bone at the base of the skull, hollowed out for the 
purpose, and consists of three portions -- the estbde, or 
antechamber, the semcircular carals, and the cocea, or sna] 
shell. The vestibule, situated on the inner side of the drum, 
is hot larger than a grain of wheat. Above and lehind are 
three bony semicircular canais, which communicate with the 


vstibule at each end. The cochlea, which bas been compared 
to a winding-stair or a snail shell, is in front of the vesti- 
bule. In the cochlea are minute fibres, or tendrils, regularly 
arranged from bottom to top, which may be likened to the 
key-board of a piano. The cochlea is filled with fluid, and 
in it fl«jats a delicate sac containing hair-like brLstles, some 
fine sand, and two ear-st¢»nes. In this wonderfully cxm- 
structed ch,,tuber are the endings of the nerve of hearing, 
spread out on the walls of the cochlea. 
21. How we Hear.--YChen one throws a stone in the 
water, from the point where the st»ne strikes are seen a 
series of circular wavelets. In like manner, when two sub- 
stances strike together, waves of air are pr«¢]uced. These 
waves, caught by the outer ear, prms through the audit«ry 
canal and strike upon tbe drum. The impulse is conveyed 
through the chain of bones into the vestibule, and on fo the 
cochlea. This sers the brtles, st»nes and sand in motion 
in the li«luid , more or less, according to the intensity of 
the air wave. The effect of the impulse upon the nerve by 
agitation of the contents of the cochlea is conveyed fo the 
brain, and we hear. 
A knowledge of the principles of sound nvould be necessary 
to understand how the various noises and musical sounds are 
created. The loudness of a sound deI;ends upon the force of 
the air waves. Other variations depend upon the length, 
frequency and regulalJty of the waves. 
Although sound is mostly carried by the air waves, as 
described, if may reach the cochlea through the bones of the 
head. A wath can be distinctly heard when placed on the 
te»p of the head, or if we hold it between the teeth the sound 
is carried fo the nerves of hearing. Deaf persons by this 
means may be ruade to hear, unless the nerve itself is de- 
stroyed. The ability te» recognize distance in sound, and the 
direction from which it cornes, is largely due to expe4ence 
and to education of the sense of hearing. 


Unlike the eyes, each car is independent of the other, and 
ena receive differcnt impressions af the saine rime. 
In some of the lower animais the outer car is movable. 
This enablea them to turn it in the direction of thc sound, 
a valuable means of protection to wild animals who prcy 
upon each other. 
22. Hygiene of the Ear.--The essential part of the car 
being dceply seated and away fro»In outward htfluence, this 
organ is nob subjecb fo injuries and dcrangcments tj the saille 
extent as the eyes. Still, the car may become affecte.d, and 
the hearing impaired, or even destroyed. Deafness in one 
ear is by no means uncommon. Tenlporary (ieafneas may 
rcsult from the closing of the canal by a collection «»f wax. 
Irt attempting to remove this with a pin or a hard-p«inted 
substance of any kind, there is danger of injury to the 
drum. The safest way is to dr«,p in a few drops of warm 
sweet oil, and afterwards gently syringe out with warm water. 
An insect sometimes gens into the canal, causing a good deal 
of pain. It can generally be drowned xvith warm water, or 
killed with a few drops of oil, and then washed out. Cld 
water should not be allowed fo run irto the ear, and a col(1 
wind blowing against the car may affect the sensitive nervc, 
causing "ear-ache." A closing up of the tul)e leading into 
the throat, from a cold or other inflamed condition of the 
throat, may produce temporary deafness. 

23. The Sense of Touch.--The sense of touch 
distributed ail over the body. ' The skin everywhere is 
endowed with serrsibility. But in certain parts, as the 
of the tongue and fingers, the sense of feeling or touch is 
deveioped fo a high degree. Touch is, to a lai'ge extent, an 
educated serse. It begins fo devch»p in infancy. There is 
no apecial nerve of touch, but in the fingers the litle papilloe 
mentioned in connection with the skin bave each a special 
nerve ending, a sort of touch corpuscl«. 


The sense of touch informs the mind not only as fo the 
nature of an object and its relative position, but as well the 
degree of temperature of the air and of substances. By this 
sense the body feels the comfort of a suitable amount of heat, 
and learns the danger from extreme cold. The common sense 
o the skin acts in conjunction with the muscular sense. It 
also frequently acts in harmony with the other special senses. 

24. Special Senses closely related. The several spe- 
cial senses have a close relationship. They hot only often 
act t«»gether and in harmony, but one wil] become a substi- 
tute for another in case one is weakened or destroyed. 
Instances «»f this are very common. Indeed, wherever one 
of the special senses is loet, another will, by development, 
assume the duties in serving the system as a whole. A blind 
pcrson hears more acutely, and knows more by the sense of 
t«,uch. The ]aw of substitution in the human system is 
c«»nstantly in operation, and nowhere so remarkab]y as in 
connection with the nerves of special sense. 
25. Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco on the Special 
Senses.--The nerves of special sense, like those of the body 
gener«lly, are injured by the constant use of alcohol or 
tobacco. 'e have noticed in its effects upon the nervous 
system, that more alcohol goes to the brain than fo any 
other organ. This being the case, the special nerves centre<] 
in the brain will naturally be disturbed. We find this to 
be true. A little licluor interferes with a person's sight 
and hearing. It is more than probable his taste and smell 
are deficient. An acute observer wi]l notice a man has had 
li«tuor by the appearance of the eyes, even when it is only a 
glmss or t,vo, and in that wild state of the brain, "delirium 
tremen»" the special senses are sometimes comple.ely 
praved. A man sees on the walls of his chamber all sorts of 
moving creatures, hears strange but fancied noises, and has 
most erratic and imaginative scnsations of taste and smell. 


But far short of this pitiable condition, the eye and car of 
the chronic drunkard may become impaired. Dimness of 
vision and a lack of acuteness in sight are recognized affec- 
tions of the eye, which may be produced both by alcohol and 
tobacco, especially by the latter. One physician reports the 
case of a man who persisted in using a strong "navy plug" 
tobacco until if led to " nearly total blindness." Another 
physician says a refined laly who had learned to smoke "to 
keep ber husband company," found her sight rapidly failing 
from its use. 
A general hardening of the walls of the arteries all over 
the body, alluded to in the chapter on Circulation, with 
weakness of their coats from alcoholic liquors, may have its 
outcome in rupture of a blood-vessel anywhere. This may 
happen to a small blood-vessel in the retina, with bleeding 
into the eye, and consequent loss of sight. The same hard- 
en«d condition of the coats of the arteries may affect the 
hearing, producing spells of "giddiness," and sometimes a 
"buzzing" in the ears. Deafness from a "dry catarrh" of 
the middle ear, and many other affections of this organ, are 
aggravated by the use of alcobol and tobacco. 
Color-blindness is sometimes produced by alcohol, and is 
more common among heavy drinkers than among total ab- 
stiners. It is, therefore, doubly important for engineers on 
railway trains, and others on whom many lives depend, to 
avoid M1 intoxicating liquors. 
The two senses, taste and smell, so closely allied and partly 
dcpendent upon each other for efliciency, are both more or 
less depraved by the smoking and drinking habits. A man 
whose calling requires of him an acute sense of taste and 
smell, a professional "tea4aster," for example, knows he 
cannot use either tobacco or alcohol in any form and retain 
those faculties with any degree of accuracy. 





1. The Protection of Life.--We have endeavored to 
show, in the preceding chapters, h,w out b«dies are built up 
and sustained. We bave pointed out the various systems, 
how they are constructed, the useful purposes for which they 
are intended, and the close sympathy 'hich exists between 
them. We have shown that one member of the body cannot 
surfer without all suffering, and that we cannot violate the 
laws of nature, «jr do-an injustice to one part, 'ithout being 
called up,,n to pay the penalty. 
Lire is uncertain, and out bodies are hot intended at best 
to last much beyond the "threeseore years and ten." Yet, 
when we lo«k into the arrangement and construction of the 
many parts of ourselves, we wonder what life is, and how the 
spark is kept eonstantly aglow. 
We cannot wholly understand the secret of life ; but we 
can in part, when we notice the many wise provisions the 
Creator has ruade for its protection and its continuance from 
day to day. The God who created us and cares for us is a 
Master V'orkman, and does nothing but what is perfect. He 
has also placed within us the irstinct and the desire to pro- 
tect ourselves and to save ourselves, as far as possible, from 
sickness, disease and injury. But accidents are likely to 
happen and sickness may overtake us at any time, hence the 
knowledge gleaned from the pages already studied, if prac- 
tically applied, will beeome very useful in an emergency ' 
when skilled help is hot at hand. 
2. Bandages, Splints, etc.--In order that we may be of 


service in cases of accident, it is necessary to know what 
applianees are needed,-and how t use them. 
Balcjes are usually ruade of unbleaehed eotton or ealieo. 
They may also be ruade of flannel, musl£u, gauze, india 
rubber, etc., aeeording t their intended use. There are 
many kinds of bandages, but the most useful and most 
convenient ones are the follet bandage and the triangular 
bandage. The latter is the one likely to be near at hand, 
for every boy and girl ha usually a pocket handkerchief, 
which, vhen folded diag«Jnally, makes a double triangular 
bandage. As its name implies, it is a three-cornered bandage, 
ruade by taking a piece of cotton a}xJut forty inches square, 
and cutting it diagonally into two halves. "Ve  ill describe 
this bandage as haing two ends and a point, and the 1-ngest 
side as the base. Three forms of bandage are ruade from it: 
THv. UNFOLDED B_&NDAGE, as in a wide sling, where the ends 
are tied behind the neck. The forearm resting in the slin9, 
the Iint is brought ar«mnd the e]Ixw, and pinned in front. 
TIIE BROAD BANDAGE where the puint is first brought to 
the base, and the whole folded once. 
THE I-RROW B/N'D.kGE, where the point is also brought to 
the base, and the whole f«lded twice. 
We carmot go fully into the application of this bandage, 
but one or two examples will show there is no part of the 
body that cannot be pruperly bandaged with it. It is also 
well suited for keeping poultices, etc., in place, and for band- 
ang splints to br«ken limbs. For the upper or lower limb 
the bandage is folded narrow or broad, and is applied by 
placing its middle over the dressing on the wound, carrying 
it round the limb and back again, and tying at the starting 
point. For the body, it is generally unfolded. For instance, 
it is applied to the right chest by placing the middle of 
the bandage on that chest, with the point over the right 
shoulder, carrying the two ends round the body, under the 


arms, and knot behind, bText draw the point over the shoul- 
der downwards, and tie it fo one of the ends. To apply 
the bandage to the head, fold the lower border lengthways, 
to form a plait like a hem, one and a half inches wide ; place 
the middle of the bandage on the head, so that the plait 
lies crossways on the forehead, the point hanging downwards 
over the back of the neck. Carry the two ends backwards 
over the ears, cross at the back of the head, enclosing the 
point, bring f,»rward, and tie on the forehead. Then stretch 
the point downwards and tura it up over the back of the 
head, and fasten it on the top with a pin. 
The roller bandage is ruade by tearing the cotton into 
strips of different widths, varying from three-quarters of an 
inch lzJ six inches, and from one and a half to ten yards in 
length, according to the part of the body to be bandaged. 
For the fingers, an inch by a yard and a half ; for the arm, 
two inches by rive yards ; for the leg, three inches by six to 
eight yards ; and for the body, four to six inches by ten yards 
are the most suitable sizes. These bandages should always 
be tightly and evenly rolled. The great secret in doing this 
is to start very ch»se and fim. In applying this bandage, 
begia at the extremity of the limb, and roll it evenly round 
and round, overlapping a little each time, so that it is smooth 
and snug. Continue it up until you have reached the wound 
and secured the dressing. 
.4. splint is an appliance for holding a limb steady. Any- 
thing we can pick up, a shingle, a picket from the fence» an 
umbrella, a bat, a broom handle, would make a good tem- 
porary splint. A picket bandaged to a broken leg by three 
triangular bandages, one at the ankle, one at the knee, and 
one well up the thigh, vill hold it firmly enough to be moved 
with safety. If possible, pad the splint with wool, strps of 
cotton, grass, or anything soft and pliable. 
The most convenient dressing for a wotmd is a piece of 


cotton folded into four or rive thicknesses, or a clean handker- 
chier similarly folded, wrung out of cold water, laid smoothly 
on the wound, and secured by a triangular bandage, as 
) poultice makes a softer dressing, but it is not so readily 
at hand, nor so usefld, as the water dressing ïor ïresh cuts or 
bruises. It is usually marie ïrom ground flax-seed, or what is 
called linseed meah Put suflïcient boiling water into a bowl, 
stir in the meal gradually, as in making porridge, until it is 
the thickness of thin dough. Then spread upon cotton, and 
put on a facing of rhin muslin. The chier feature about a 
poultice is its faculty for retaining heat. It must 1)e applied 
hot, and changed as soon as it gets cold. 
_A_ mustard plaster is ruade by mixing mustard with water 
or vinegar and the white of an egg, and should be of the 
saine consistence as a poultice. Spread it on thick gray 
paper, and use a facing of muslin. It should be applied not 
longer than rive minutes at a time. 
Fomentations are flannels wrung out of hot water, or hot 
water and turpentine--a tablespoonful to every quart of 
water. Lift the flannel from the boiling water, and wring it 
as much as heat will permit; then throw it into a jack 
towel, wring well, and carry to the patient still enclosed in 
the towel. Unfold and apply. Change every few minutes. 
In tying a knot, always make a "reef" or "sailor" knot, 
which is a dou))le loop, with both ends coming out, on one 
side under, on the other over, the loop ; hot one end on either 
side of the loop, as in the "granny" knot. 
3. Hoemorrhage.--Bleeding may be from an artery, a 
vein, or from the capillaries. If an artery is cut, the blood 
spurts out in jets with great force, and is of a bright red 
color. Coming directly from the heart, the loss of blood is 
rapid and the danger is in proportion to the size of the 
artery cut. When a large vein is cut, consideable blood 

may be lost, but as the current is towards the heart if bas 
hot so much force. t flows evenly and is of a dark purple 
color. If the capillaries only are cut» the blood oozes gently 
from the wound. 
4. BIeeding from an /krtery.--The arterles are found 
in nearly every part of the body. V'herever it is possible, 
they are situated deep down in the tissues. The larger 
trunks usually occupy the most protected situations, and 
general]y run in a very straight course. They are therefore, 
fortunately, hot so frequently cut or injured as the veins, 
wbich run near the surface and are more tortuous and more 
exposed. VThen an artery is cut, if calls for prompt action, 
and requires some presence of mind. If the artery is large, 
there is no rime fo be lost. Let us remember two things to 
be done, even if we forger everything e]se. Put firm pressure 
directly on the bleeding paf't, and also on the artery some- 
where above the wound, that is, between it and the heart. 
To apply pressure on the wound, take a pad made of some 
firm substance» such as a fiat cork, a smooth, fiat stone» a 
roll of paper, a penny, or whatever is within reach, and rie 
it firmly with a handkerchief or a triangular bandage folded 
To apply pressure on the artery above the wound, we must 

FI. 45.--Showing how a tri- 
angular bandage and a stick 
may be applied to the arm to 
stop bleeding. 

know the most suitable places. Gen- 
erally speaking, we can arrest bleeding 
from any part of the arm by pressing 
upon the artery in the arm-pit, and 
from any part of the leg by pressing 
upon the artery in the groin. The 
pressure is best applied by taking the 
narrow folded bandage, or handker- 
chief, tying a knot in ifs centre, plac- 
ing this knot over the line of the 
artery, and tying it loosely but with 


a firm knot around the limb. Now introduce a piece of stick 
under the bandage and twist it round and round until it is 
tight enough fo stop ail bleeding. In the upper part of the 
arm, the artery lies along the inner edge of the swell of the 
biceps. From this point the artery 
takes a straight course to the middle 
of the bend of the elbow. Here the 
knot should be placed about the mid- 
dle, and either use the stick, as before, 

or bend and fasten the elbow firmly 
over the knot. In the thigh, the 
artery lies a]most in a straight line 
from the inner part of the groin to 
the inner and under side of the knee. 
The twisted bandage is applied bigh 
up on the thigh, the knot being placed 
on the line of the artery. For bleed- 
ing below the knee, the twisted band- 
age should be adjusted immediately 
above the knee, or the knee can be 
bent over the knot or pad and fas- 
tened firmly. 
For bleeding from the head or neck, 
naturally we cannot put the twisted 
bandage round the neck. We must 
pad and bandage flrmly over the 
wound, if it is on the head, and in 
the neck press out Fmgers into the 
wound itself, and directly above and 
be]ow the wound. 

FIo. 46.--Showing how a 
bandage may be used to stop 
bleeding from an artery in the 

The twisted bandage is so important that children should 
be frequently practised in its use. 
5. Bleeding from the Veins.--First place the person 
in a lying<lown position and raise the bleeding part ; then 



examine the wound and wash it well with very cold or with 
hot water. If the bleeding is too profuse to be stopped in 
this manner, rie a pad firmly over the wound and free the 
clothing above so that the blood can pass on readily towards 
the body. 
6. Bleeding from the Capillaries.--The simple oozing 
of blood from a wound is easily controlled. Cleanse the 
wound well hy a good washing with cold water. Lay on it 
the cold water dressing, or the same dressing dipped in alum 
water, and secure it firmly with a trian-mlar bandage. 
7. Bleeding from the Lungs or Stomach.--Keep the 
person quiet and as composed as possible, and put him in a 
reclining position with the shoulders well raised. Apply ice 
or very cold cloths to the chest or pit of the stomach, and 
give ILim plenty of ice to chew and swallow in little pieces. 
8. Bleeding from the Nose.--This is a very common 
occurrence in children and growing people, and is hot often 
alarming. Placing the patient in a chair, or allowing him to 
stand, get him to raise both arms high above the head, well 
extended, and keep them there for some rime. Pinch the 
nose near the end between the finger and thumb, and press 
backwards or press upward upon the upper lip, or both. 
You will compress a small blood-vessel in either case. Put a 
piece of ice or a cold key to the back of the neck. The 
sudden, cold shock causes the small blood-vessels to shrink. 
The ice or cold water may also be applied to the forehead and 
nose. Do hot forger to undo the collar and free the circuloe 
tion at the neck. 
Any one of these simple means may suffice to stop the 
bleeding, but if ail fail, roll a small piece of cotton wool on a 
long, fine pen-handle, dip it into a bottle of tincture of iron 
and run it into the nose, keeping the pen-handle level and 
allowing it to go strait back for about one and a half to 


two inches. Leave this in for a minute or two, then with- 
draw and roll on a fresh piece, dip and return. 
9. Cts» Wounds» etc.--Having arrested all bleeding 
according to the methods described, the next thing to do is 
to dress the wound. When an artery is cut, the bandages 
must hot be disturbed until a physician is called. In all 
other cases, after cleansing the wound well with cold water, 
or, better still, with cold water and borax (four tablespoonfuls 
of the latter to a pint of water), .bring the edges together 
closely and evenly. If the wound is a clean-cut one, use 
small strips of sticking-plaster to keep the edges in close 
contact. These strips should be only from a cluarter to hall 
an inch wide, and from two to four inches long. In atTly- 
ing them, leave intervals between, lext lay on the water 
dressing, using the borax water in preference to plain water. 
Fasten this in place with a triangular bandage. If there is 
much pain or inflammation, keep the dressing constantly wet 
with the cold borax water. When a wound is badly torn or 
bruised, do hot use the sticking-plaster, but, having arranged 
the edges as evenly as possible, apply the dressing as above. 
Lastly, place the patient in an easy position and do hot 
allow any straining on the wounded part. 
10. Bites of Animals.--Tie a thick cord tightly around 
the limb on the side nearest the heart. Suck the wound 
well, spitting out the poison. Encourage bleeding by bath- 
ing the wound freely with luke-warm water. If positive the 
bite is from a mad dog, or other rabid animal, burn out the 
poison at once with pure carbolic acid, or a red-hot iron. 
11.-Burns and Scalds.--A burn is caused by dry heat 
and produces pain, with redness of the skin, blistering, and, 
if intense, destruction of the deeper tissues. A scald is 
caused by hot or boiling liquids falling on the skin; the 
epidermis is raised, large blisters form, and the true skin is 
reddened and inflamed. The chief objects in the treatment 


are to ease the pain and to prevent unsightly scars. The 
best dressings are Carton oil (a mixture of equal parts of 
linseed oil and lime water), cast»r oil and olive oil. Apply 
the oil freely, wrap the part up in cott»n wool, and bandage 
_loosely. As healing goes on, keep the parts in their natural 
positi«m, so that when the scars form and contract» as they 
lmve a tendency to do, they cannot draw and bind the limb 
in a false position. 
12. Cothes on Fire.--Prompt action is necessary when a 
child's clothes accidentally catch tire. In a ver)- few minutes 
it will be enveloped in flames, and so severely burnt as to 
render recovery doubtful or impossible. Place the child fiat 
on the ground at once. F[ames nturally ascend, and will 
rapidly encircle the body in the upright position, but when 
lying down they scend into the air ; smother the flames with 
your coat, a shawl, rug, table-cloth, or anything at hand. If 
on tire yourself, d,» hot run for help, but get fiat down, pull 
something over yon and smother out the flames, or roll round 
and round on the floor. Crawl to the bell and ring it, or to 
the door, and call for help. Girls and women are more apt 
to get seriously burnt in this way than boys or men, on 
account of their mode of dress. 
13. lrost-bite.--The nose, ears, fmgers and toes are occa- 
sionally frost-bitten. 1Rub the parts affected with SHOW, or 
other cold application, in a room without a tire. If a person 
is severely frost-bitten, give hot drinks, such s beef tea or 
hoç ginger te, and in the after tretment deal with the 
wound as you would with a burn. 1)oultices may be needed 
later on, to remove the parts destroyed by the frost. 
14. Broken Bones.--A simple break is one in which the 
bone only is divided. A compound break is one where the 
bone pierces the skin, making an external wound. The usual 
symptoms of a broken bone are: The limb is helpless and 
painful ; it is very likely altered in shape, and there is a 


unusual looseness af the seat of fracture. ny movement 
causes a scraping together of the broken ends of the bone, 
which can be felt, and sometimes heard. Often the limb is 

shoened, and there is an un- 
evenness along the surface at 
the broken place. 
Do not more the person until 
you bave ruade the limb sale 
from further harm by putting 
on splints. By careless hand- 
ling, or by attempting to use 
the limb, we may sometimes 
convert a simple break into a 
compound one, by forcing the 
fractured bone through the skim 

Fo. 47.--Showing how a tempo- 
rary splint may be put on a broken 

Fe. 48.--Showing how a temporary 
splint and a sting ny be put on a 
broken arm. 

If then becomes a much more formidable injury. Seizing the 
hand or foot, as the case may be, pull steadily, but firmly and 
in a straight line, until you bring the limb into as natural 
a position as possible, and secure with splints and bandages. 
If it is the arra, it should then be put in a sling ; but if the 

leg, if is lwys sfer fo rie both legs together, securing them 
af the knee and ankle and carry the patient home on a door, 
shutter, or other improvised stretcher. 
15. Dislocations .rhen a bone is thrown out ot the 
joint, there is always a good deal of pain. The part wili bave 
a deformed lok, and the limb wil[ be hellless and fixed. 
Apply cold-water cloths, to relieve the pain and prevent 
swelling, unti[ the doctor cornes. If the person must be 
moved, carry him on a stretcher. 
16. Sprains.--A sprain is a wrench of the joint, tearing 
some of the ligaments and tendons 'hich bind if. The joints 
least liable to dislocation are most liable to sprain. Those 
most commonly sprained are the akle, wrist and knee. 
Apply ice-cold water af once and continuously, for two or 
three days, keeping the joint well elevated. If not attended 
to in this way at once, and considerable swelling has occurred, 
then hot fomentations are better than the cold. If is also a 
good plan to put on a roller bandage, evenly and firmly, and 
keep it well soaked with water. 
17. Insensible Conditions. -- Insensibility is brought 
about by some interference with the proper action of the 
heart, or by some disturbance to the natural condition of the 
brain. If from any cause the heart's ction becomes suddenly 
wea, k, and does not send a proper supply of blood to the 
brain, the patient is pale, and may become gradually uncon- 
scious. On the other hand, too much blood to the brain 
causes a delirium, wh/ch may pass into insensibility. An 
injury fo the brain may cause insensibility; so also poison- 
ing. Opium may put the brain to sleep. Alcohol may deaden 
the brain centres. Anything which stops the breathing also 
checks the heart, and soon produces insensibility. 
The most common forms of insensibility met with are : fits, 
concussion and compression of the brain, sun-stroke, intoxica 
tion, drowning, suffocation by gas, strangling, poisoning, etc. 


18. General Hints.--Note the surroundings and glance 
around for probable cause. Place the person on his back, 
with a pillow or folded coat under his head. Straighten him 
out, and examine carefully. Undo his clothes at the neck, 
chest and waist. Feel the pulse at the wrist, and listen to 
his breathhlg. Examine his poclets f«»r a bottle of spirits or 
poison. Smell his breath, to detect liquor, lotice the face, 
whether pale, as in fainting, or flushed, as in intoxication. 
Do not attempt to make an insensible person swallow any* 
thing. If the person is affected with violent spasms or 
convulsions, do hot hold him too firmly, but restrain him 
suciently to prevent self-injury, and place Sonlething hard 
between his teeth, to prevent the tongue fa'oto being litten. 
19. lits.--Ordinary fai»ting jïts are produced by ieing 
in a too close, warm room, by mental shock, by l«»ss of 
or by a weak heart. Lay the patient down, with the head 
very low, and bathe the face and head with cold water. Give 
plenty of fresh air, and, if at hand, use smelling salts. 
Apoplexy is caused by the breaking of an artery in the 
head, with bleeding into the brain. Although placed in the 
lying position, the head and shoulders should be kept well up, 
to keep the blood away from the brain as much as lssible. 
Use cold water and ice to the head, and heat to the arms and 
legs. Hot stove-lids, hot bricks, hot-water bottles, or mus- 
tard plasters can all be used to draw the blood into the legs 
and arms. 
EœeileTsy is a convulsive fit, which some people are subject 
fo at intervals. When the spasms are on, treat as already 
directed, and when consciousness returns give some nourish- 
ment, such as beef tea, and advise test and sleep. 
20. Concussion of the Brain.--A shaking up of the 
brain by a fall or blow on the head is called concussion. If 
the blow is severe enough to break in both tables of the skull 
and cause pressure on the brain itis called compression, and 


is more serious than concussion. In either case the patient 
should be inLmediately taken into a quiet, dark room, and 
put to bed, with a large pillow under his head. Apply 
warm blankets to the body and hot applications to his hands 
and feet. 
21. Sun-stroke, or Heat-stroke.--When over-heated, 
we fcel faint and exhausted. "Ve are overcome with the 
excessire heat, but it is n«Jt sun-stroke. Lying down in a 
c««d, sha«ly place, and sponging the face and hands with cold 
water, will quickly reliere. A drink of hot tea or coffee or 
becf tea will stilnulate the flagging heart. A sun-stroke is 
more serious, and insensi|)ility soon follows. The conditions 
are: too much blood in the head and brain, the face red, 
the head ho»t, the breathing slow and lab-red, and the pulse 
full, but weak. lerhaps the first symptom the patient will 
n(»tice is intense p;dn at the back of the head. It is not 
ncccssary to | exI»«sed to the sun's rays to get sm-stroke. 
Intense heat of any kind may produce it. Remore the 
patient to a cool room, and place him on a couch with his 
head high. Apply ice-cold cloths, or, better still, the ice-bag, 
fo the head, back of the neck and spine, and warmth to the 
legs and feet. 
22. Intoxication.--Excess in drimking brings about in- 
toxication. In this condition the indiridual is usually hot 
perfectly insensil»le, and can generally be roused by pinching 
or shaking. This is a good rime to &dve an emetic of salt or 
mustard, a ta})lespoonful of either fo a tumbler of water. 
Give him plenty of it. ]Iany, however, are beyond this 
stage. They are "dead drunk," and require the utmost care. 
In dealing with such a case, get him to bed in a comfortable 
room. laise his head a little, and apply cloths frequently 
wrung out in c«»ld water. Roll him in warm blankets, and 
put hot-water bottles to his feet and hands. When he rouses» 
give him a little beef tea or hot milk. 


23. Drowning.--The great object is to restore the breath- 
ing. Lose no time. The moment the body has been removed 
from the water make all efforts to save lire. Do not lose 
valuable time in order fo procure shelter, warmth, etc. 
stantly remove all tight clothing from the neck, chest and 

Fro. 49.--First Position: to remove water and mucu from the 
throat and windpipe. 
Turn the patient on his fae, and getting astride him at 
the hips (Fig. 49) with your face towards his hed, lock your 
hands under his body and raise him as high as you can  ith- 
out lifting the forehed off the ground. Give the body two 
or three smart jerks to remove ail water, slime or mucus from 
the mouth, throat and windpipe. 
lqext place the patient on his back in a ]ying position, 
with a pillow or coat rolled up underneath the shoulder- 
blades, and with the head hanging back slightly. Sweep the 
forefinger, covered with a handkercbief or towel, round the 
inside of the mouth, to free it from sand, mud, froth or 
mucus. If you bave anyone to help, get the assistant to 
draw forward tbe tongue. It generally tends to fall back in 
the throat and close the air-passage. The assistaat can hold 



the tongue better by using a dry handkerchief or towel. If 
you have no help, draw forward the tongue and secure it by 
a string, a rubber hand or a strip of handkerchief fastened 
round the lower jaw. 
24. Artificial Respiration.--These preliminary efforts 
should be the work of but a few moments. -ow you are 
ready for the main part of the treatment---to  ula arti- 
ficial res]airation until t]oe natural breathing cmnes. 

lïo. 50.Seoond Position: for the purpose of drawing air into the lung. 

Stand or partly kneel at his head, and grasping the arms 
near the elbows, draw them up over the head until they 
meet, extending them upward with a good pull (Fig. 50), and 
hold them there f,»r a couple of seconds. This increases the 
caxity of the ces expands the lungs, and the air is drawn 
in to fill the space. 
Tow draw down the arms and press them rmly against 
thi sides of the chest. (Fig. 51.) This tends to force air out 
of the lungs, and thus you complete the act of respiration by 
artificial means. 
Repeat this process steadily at the rate of about fif'teen 
times in a minute until he begins to breathe. Do not get 

discouraged too quickly, even if there seems tobe no life in 
the body. Artificial respiration should, if necessary, be kept 
up .for at least two ]tours. Lire has been restored even after 
four hours. 
As soon as the patient begins to breathe, wrap him in 
dr),., warm blankets, and rub the limbs under the ],lankets 
vigorously towards the heart, so as to a.ssist the circulation 
in the superficial veins. Put heated flammls, hot-water 
bottles, or hot bricks to the feet, legs, armpits and pit of the 

Fro. 51.--Third Position: for the ptulao of expelling air from the lungs. 

six)mach. XVhen al»le to swallow, ve him small quantities 
of hot milk, beef tea or coffee. Keep the patient in bed and 
let him sleep if possible. If his breathing is hot free and 
easy, put a mustard plaster to the chest for a few minutes, 
and repeat again in an hour if necessary. 
25. Suffocation by Gas, Smoke, etc.--The chief dan- 
gers from soEocation by noxious gazes corne from burning 
coal in badly constructed furnaces, stoves or ranges, from 
"blowing out" gas ih bed-rooms, instead of turning it out, 
or from foul air in old wells or in mines. 
Remove the patient at once to fresh air. Çndo ail cloth- 
ing about the neck, bare the chest and dash on cold water. 



If breething is not immediatcly restored by these efforts, 
lose no rime but set to work fo perform artificial respiration, 
as in drowning, using the same precautions, the same energy, 
and keep it up as faithfully. 
26. Forcign Bodics in the Eyc, Ear, ctc.--Although 
the organs of special sense are well protected, yet foreign 
substances will, by accident or by the wilfulness of children, 
sonetimes get lodged in them and cause trouble and annoy- 
ance. Cinders and particles of dust often get into the eye, 
and cause a go«,d deal of pain. Do not irritate and inflame 
the eye by rubbing it. Open the eye-lids and perhaps the 
overflow of tears will wash out the offending substance, or 
draw down the upper lid well over the under one, and the 
lashes ma), remove it. If it can be seen, get a friend to use 
a fine, clean handkerchief to dislodge it. Lime in the eye 
may cause serious mischief, unless attended to at once. Mop 
the eye with a camel's hair brush or fine feather, dipped in 
a solution of vinegar and water, one tablespoonful fo a smal] 
teacupful of water. 
Small insects may crawl into the ear and cause great pain. 
Put in a few drops of warm sweet oil, and then syringe out 
the ear with warm water. A pea or bean getting into tbe 
ear will soon swell out from the warmth and moisture, and is 
very difficult to remove. Do not wait for it to swell, but go 
to a physician and have it talen out. 
A child may shove a pea, bean, or button, etc., up the 
nose until it is beyod reach. If the child can be got to 
blow the nose, he may dislodge it; or it may be removed 
by holding his mouth closed, and blowing up the other nostril 
with a tube. The air passes around and may force out the 
obstruction, ° 
Bits of food, a thimble, a copper, or other substance, may 
lodge in the throat and endanger the lire of a hild from 
choling. _ quicl smart slap between the shoulders may 


force it out, or turn the child on his het and give him one 
or «o vigorous shakes. If there is still no relief, try to 
grasp the object with your finger and thumb, or if 
down for this» run your finger down and shove if on into the 
gullet» so as to free the windpipe. 
27. Poisons.--Whenever it is necessary to bave a p«»ison- 
ous drug about the house, it should be carefully hbelled 
"IOISOb, '' and put in a safe place. There should be only 
one place for ail such articles, and that place sh,»uld be a 
locked cupboard or chest. Do hot keep any medicine or (lrug 
that has lest its label. Throw it out at once, instead of 
taking a dose fo find out what itis. "An ounce of preven- 
tion is worth a pound of cure." 
If you believe a poison bas been swallowed, but do 
know what it is, the best you can dois to encourage «»..iting 
and get the six)mach to reject all it can. The best and most 
convenient emetics are large draughts of warm watêr and 
mustard or sait. 
If you now discover what poisonous substance bas been 
swallowed, you must try and recall to your mind the best 
remedy you can use or bave at hand for counteracting it. 
Charge your memory with the antidotes or drugs given 
counteract the effects of the poisons most comm,»nly met 
with. Itis a wise precaution to bave the antidote for each 
poison kept in the bouse, and it is safer still, where prac- 
ticable, fo label and place each antidote with the poison it 
will count¢ract. 
Mineral acids and alkalies neutralize each other, and there- 
fore one is an antidote for the other. 
If a strong minerai acid, such as oil of vitriol, aqua fortis, 
or slfirits of sali, be swallowed, give large drinks of 
magnesia or lime-water» chalk» soap-suds or plaster from the 
wall. W]en hartshorn» caustic soda lime or strong lye are 
taken, give vinegar and water or lemonade. Carbolic acid 


has become somewhat common in households, and is a dan- 
gerous poison. Alkalies do not neutralize this acid. The 
best you can dois to give large quantities of sweet oil and 
Rat poisons contain either I]tosp]orus, mercury, arsenic or 
stryclnia. F«,r any of these, first give an emetic. Phos- 
|»h,»rus is also in common use in the manufacture of matches. 
Itis best counteracted by large draughts of warm water and 
magnesia, lqo oils.- For arsenic, give new milk, raw eggs, 
linseed tea, and a full dose of castor oih For mercury, give 
the same antidotes as in arsenic. In a case of strychnia 
poisoning, after encouraging vomiting by an emetic or by 
tickling the thïoat with a feather, give animal charcoal mixed 
with water ; use cold applications to the body, and, if neces- 
sary, resort fo artificial respiration. 
iVarcotics, such as opium, morphine, laudanum, paregoric, 
etc., in large doses, produce a deep sleep or stupor. After 
using a bl'isk emetic, keep the patient roused by walking 
him about, slapping the face and body with cold, wet towels 
and We strong coffee. 
28. Alcohol in First Aids.It is, unfortunately, too 
common a practice when a person is taken suddenly il] or 
meets with an accident, to give brandy or whiskey. Not 
knowing what to do, we are apt fo do the wrong thing. In 
all the different emergencies and Lilments we have been deal- 
ing with in this chapter, hot only is alcohol utmecessatT, 
but in many cases it would be positively haanful. When 
the patient can swallow at all, a drink of hot beef tea, hot 
tailk, or hot ginger tea will answer every purpose. 
29. Alcohol and Tobacco Irritant Narcotics.--The 
irritant poisons, such as minerai acids, arsenic, etc., can be 
and are used as medicines in properly regulated doses. With 
the same care, narcotics are sometimes given to relieve pain 
or soothe the wearied brain to sleep. In like manner, the 


irritant narcotics, such as brandy and all spirituous liquors, 
tobacco and nicotine, may be taken in small doses, without 
producing any marked signs of poisoning ; but just as surely 
as an overdose of any of the other poisons will produce 
serious results, so sure is an overd«»se of alcohol or nicotine 
to endanger lire or even prove fatal, lI«Lny a child, and 
many older persons, for that m«Ltter, have lost their lires by 
taking a l«rge of alcoh«»l, either by mistake, or by hnving 
it forced upon them, or in a wager. 
Intoxicati«»n is in reality a poisoned condition of the sys- 
rem. The name itself implies tbis. Alcoho], when taken 
almost pure and in sufficient quantity, may produce death in 
a few minutes or in . few hom's ; and evcn when taken in 
small quantities, while it de»es not produce symptoms of 
poisoning, it tends to shorten lire, and is often the primary 
cause of mnny of the every-day examples of ill-hen]th, sick- 
ness and S¢lualor  since it weakens the constitution, under- 
mines morality, and is the great fountin of pauperism, 
therel)y rendering thousands of bornes unhppy. 
If alcohol and tobacco were irritants only, they would be 
as little used as any of the irritant poisons, but they are 
narcotics as well, and while they soothe, they also irritnte 
nd destroy ; while they stimulate, they also depress ; while 
they exhilarate, they also weaken; while they charm the 
senses for a time, they fscinate until they conquer ; while 
they drown sorrow, the respite is brief, for it soon returns 
with greater weight. Instead of elevating, they debase; 
instead of strengthening the moral system, they undermine 
it ; instead of improving the mental and intellectual facul- 
ries, they numb the very nerve centres; and instead of 
nourishing and invigorating the system, they interfere with 
ifs various functions and render if more suscelible to injury 
and decay. 




1. Preventable Diseases.--During recent years much 
progress has been ruade along the lines of acquiring more 
accurate kn«»wledge of the causes of the various diseases, their 
m«xles of spreading, and of more effective measures for pre- 
venting nd restricting them. It is  nobler aire for the 
physician to prevent disease than to cure it. The naine of 
Sir V. Jenner will ever be known, hot so much because he 
was  celebrated physician, but because by the introduction 
of vaccination he established a method of preventing the 
virulence of small-pox. Scurvy, vhich a few years ago was a 
very common disease on board ships long out at se without 
vegetables, or amongst soldiers in wr time where the diet 
was not sufficiently varied, is now  rare disease, owing to the 
discovery of the cause, and the use of lime-juice and lemon- 
juice when fresh vegetables cnnot be obtained. Leprosy 
was a well-known disease in ancient days, and up to  few 
hundred years ago it ws common in Great Britain. By a 
c«mtinued and careïul isolation of cases it has now become  
rare disease. The much dreaded choler has been pretty 
effectually held in check by the wtchfulness of the Publie 
Health Officers t the vrious seports. Amd of other pre- 
rentable diseases, such as typhoid lever, measles, scarlet lever, 
diphtheria, erysipelas, etc., better means of rsting local 
ep.idemics have been used recently than in former years. 
13ut while much has already been done in the way of pre- 
venting disease, more remains to be done. The seeds of 
disease have been widely sown in the human race by inatten- 


tion to the laws of health, and will continue to geminato 
and grow if hot arrested by the strictest compliance with 
those laws, not only of individuals, but of c«jnmmnities as 
well. In view of the fact that by the observance of sanitary 
laws disease may be prevented, it is obious that education 
on this subject should be widely diffused. It should begin 
in childhood with the parent, by precept and example. It 
should be continued in the school-room, from the lowest 
grades upward, and the wise and prudent man will be a 
student of hydene ail hi. lire. 
2. Infectious and Contagious Diseases.--The terms 
infectiuus and contagious have a separate and distinct mean- 
ing, although tbey are commonly used synon)qnously. Tbe 
distinction is important in so far as each terre indicates 
the means whereby the poison which invades the system is 
The poison of an infectious disease is developed externa] fo 
the human body, and is introduced to the system irrespective 
of a pre-existing case. Typhoid lever and cholera are types 
of this class. In a contagious disease the germs of the poison 
are received directly or indirectly fa'oto a person having the 
d£sease. The germs, haviug been received into the system, 
undergo a process of dev_elopment and multiplication. There 
is always a period, longer or shorter, between catching the 
d£ea.e and its actual apearance. It is a period of incul)a- 
tion or hatching. Familiar types of this class are scarlet 
fever, measles and small-pox. 
Some diseases are more distinctly contaous than others, 
as scarlet fever and small-pox ; some, as diphtheria, seem to 
be both infectious and contagious, while choiera is believed 
l»y some to be contagious as well as infectious. 
The poison o inîectiorh developed external Ix) the body, 
requires suitable soil in which the germs may take root and 
grow. This soli cortsists of dead matter which bas formed a 


part of a living being or a vegetable growth. Jt is not 
meïe]y dead matter, it is marrer undeïgoing decomposition ; 
hot alone decoml»osing, but putrefying. If does hot require 
much of this ]?utrefring matter to forma breeding-ground for 
the disease germs, and, unfortunately, such breeding-grounds 
abound on every hLnd. They are the outcome of every-day 
civilized lire. They are fou,d in the waste material which 
cornes from every dwelling-h¢)use, from many factories, stables, 
storehouses, butcher stal|s, etc. They exist in the form of 
garbage thrown from tl,e kitchen or lyhg in the cellar, in 
the sl«,ps of the kitchen, in the dust on the fl«»«,r, or ]odged on 
the fur,titure. In a word, a breeding spot f«»r disease will be 
round in every hde and ce»mer of an untidy house---on the 
walls, in the cl«»thing, eve,'ywhere. 
3. Means of Invading the Human System.--The 
manner in whicl, these disease-p,'oducing germs find their way 
into the bçly is varied. They are often, vhen flating in 
the air as dust, inhah',l with the breath. They may be mixed 
with the f«»d or «lt'ink, and sw«dl«»we«l. 'l,en these germs 
g«dn adlnission to the system, they enter i,to a contest with 
the elements of the t»«gly. Having f,»und a soil suitable for 
their deveb»pment, they, in taking root, take nourishment from 
the cellular structures of th«t particular part. They encroach 
upon the living cells, and a struggle for life ensues between 
the cells of the part and the i,'ading cells. Sometimes the 
seat of conflict is in one part of the b«»dy, sometimes in 
another. In typhoid lever ti,e battle-ground is in one portion 
of the intestine, in cholera itis in another portion. In diph- 
theria it is in the mucous membrane of the throat. It is 
here also in wh¢x»ping-cough. In erysipelas it is in any part 
of the surface nvhere there is a Wouhd or broken integument. 
In this struggle for lire "the more numerous and more 
powerful the invading force, the more decided the victory. 
But sometimes the invader fail to conquer, lot everyone 


exposed fo infection or contagion takes the particular disease, 
hot because .the germs do not enter the system, but because 
they were too weak, or because the powers of lire enabled the 
cells attacked to successfully resist the enemy, to destroy him 
and cast him out. iolluted germs sometimes enter the body, 
and insteoe of attacking a larticular part, contaminate the 
whole system. This is seen in intermitte]t lever and low 
revers, caused by living in malarial districts. 
The lessoa these facts af»rd is easily learned. The force of 
fhe maxim, "Prevention is }Jetter than cure," is to I»e al0i»lied 
to every-day lire. High authority has declare«l tht clean- 
liness is next to godliness. But the marrer of cleanli]ess 
must be applied, hot oly to the person, I»ut to his surround- 
ings ms well. If this rule be «)|»served, no ,il f«,r impure 
germs fo grow in will exist a|»ut the dwelli]g, the office, 
the work-sh«»p, or esleclally the kitchen. 
The most efficient means of dealing with all refuse material 
is always af hand. Al[ refuse oreanic matter that can he 
burned, should be thus destroyed. Filth in fluid form nay 
be burned by mixing sawdust with it. If not |jurned, tbe 
material should be far removed from every place of ha|»itation 
,»r be prolerly disinfected. Pure air and sunlight are valuable 
0]isinfectants, and should be let into every hole and corner of 
the house and lremises. Beside aii and sunlight, nature has 
lrovided another disinfectant in common earth, which will 
absorb fluids, and by chemical ction convert-offensive mate- 
rial into soil. 
4.° Antiseptics and Disinfectants.--An antisêptic is an 
. . 
agent which restrans or absolutely prevents decomlosition ; 
a disinfectant oxidizes the deoe matter ms it decomposes, but 
the best disinfectants are those that destroy the germs of 
disease. The use of an antiseitic , as common salt in curing 
meat, prevents the necessity of using disinfectants, and the 
timely use of  disinf.ectnt destroys the soil la which germs 

would develop. The butcher, finding his meat a ]ittle tainted, 
can restore t by the thnely use of a disinfectant, and hence 
he wahes t with Condy's flud, or, better sti|l a solution of 
the acid from willow bark. One of the best and cheapest 
antiseptics is boiling water. It has no equal in the univer- 
sality of its use and in its cleansing and wholesome properties. 
In the kitchen, in the scullery, in the laundry, in the 
dairy, itis the perfect antiseptic. The housewife knows its 
antiseœetic pr«»perties when she scalds the milk cans before 
"setting" the milk, in order to keep it pure and sweet. 
Many of the best disinfectant drugs are powerful poisons, 
and, therefore, cannot be recommended for general use. 
Strong-smelling drugs_ -_--.-*-..are hot necessarily good disinfectants. 
They may be goodês,but cannot be relied upon 
killing germs. CarT»olic acid, for instance, will ortly disinfect 
where it t»uches, and although much vaunted and much nsed, 
is nota good general disinfectant. The following is a better 
general disinfectant, and is one which cannot be too strongly 
recommended, hot only b)r its effectiveness, but because it 
is cheap, free from smell, practically non-poisonous in the 
strength it is used, and will hot stain or injure linen, clothes, 
etc. Dissolve half a drachm (nearly hall a small teaspoonful) 
«,f nitrate of lead in a pint of boiling water. Then dissolve 
two drachms (two teaspoonfuls) of common sait in eight 
quarts of water. Pour the two mixtures together. A_ter 
the sediment has settled, the liquid is a saturated solution of 
chloride of lead. 
A cloth dipped in it and hung up in a room ill purify a 
fetid atmosphere. It may be used to be poured down a sink, 
drain, or other foui opening. 
5. The Sick Room.--The proper management of a case 
of contagious diseuse, to prevent it from spreading, should be 
understood by everyone, lrom this case the germs may find 
their way to other members of the family. They may pass 


directly from the one affected to another by inhMing the 
breath or the exhMations from the b«»dy, or they may be 
carried by a third person from the first to the seoEmd, or by 
means of a book or other innimate object. _A_gain, the germs 
may lie d«,rrnnt for an indefinite period, perhaps in clothing 
or on the wMls of a room, like wheat in a granary stored 
away, ready to gTow when sown on a suitable soli. Instances 
are hOt uncommon where a contagious diseuse appeared, when 
it was impossible fo ascertin its source. If is known that 
these divises do not arise spontaneously. As well expect to 
have a crop of corn without planting corn, as to bave scarlet 
fever, for instance, without having had the germs of that 
disease planted in the system. Doubtless, in the instances 
referred to the germs hal been lying undistm'bed up«m some 
object or in some article of clothing f«»r a time past rec«,l]ec- 
tion ; or, as bas often happened, a family hs moved into a 
dwelling where a case had existed, and pro»per disinfection 
had hot been moee. 
Certain contgious diseases are ofly contracted once in 
life, as mesles and scarlet fever, with some few exceptions. 
Sometimes a person may be exposed to a contaous disease 
without catching it,, and when again expsed is n«»t so fortu- 
nate. This is due either to the existence of a more powerful 
poison at the lmt exposure, or to what is called a predisposition 
on the part of the individual. He may be af this rime in less 
robust health, and the vital powers are unable to cope with 
the germs successfully. If is to be remembered that no one 
in poor health should expose himself as attendant upon the 
patient. The more contagious the diseuse, as in scarlet lever- 
or smMl-pox, the greater the care to be oboerved. While 
the welfare of the patient is duly attended to, the welfare of 
others should not be neglected. There need be no conflict 
between the two necessities. 
The first thing to be done when a cae of contagious diseae 


becomes known, is to isolate the person. Itis preferable fo 
have the sick room at the top of the bouse. The germ-tainted 
air is more likely to ascend than descend, and in ventilating, 
the foul air of the chamber will escape above the heads of the 
occupants, and be soon lost in the atmosphere. 
The sick room should be large, bright and airy, but should 
contain only such articles of furniture as are absolutely re- 
quired for the comfort of the patient and nurse. The room 
should be stripped of carpets, curtains, pictures and table 
covers, unless they are subse¢luently tobe burned. Also books, 
papers, ornaments, and in fact everything that can be easily 
removed. The less there is in the room the less surface there 
is on which the disease germs can collect. There should be 
no superfluous bedclothes, and the nurse must l)e satisfied 
with a cushionless chair. She must not go about the bouse or 
among the family. She must take her meals by herself, and 
sleep either in the sick room or in a room similarly prepared, 
and used only by herself. Only the nurse and doctor should 
enter the room, and nothing should be taken back and forth 
to and from the sick room. All the excretions of the body 
must be disinfected at once. In a case of diphtheria, the 
discharges from the throat should be collected on pieces of old 
cotton, and promptly put in the tire. Any food or drink left 
by the patient should be either burned or disinfected. 
Besides avoiding the sick room, the other members of the 
family should, as far as possible, withdraw for the rime from 
society general]y, and especially should the attendance of any 
of the children at school be discontinued. 
Proper ventilation is necessary night and day. The old 
idea that night air is dangerous has mainly lost its hold upon 
the intelligent mind. But admitting that night air is objec- 
tionable, itis far better for the patient than the close, tainted 
air of the room. VV-hen the room remains altogether closed 
for a rime and then opened, the rush of foui air outward raay 

cause a current which might be a source of danger te thc 
patient. The ferre of ventilation must be directed by the 
doctor, and his instructions in this and all other respects 
should be implicitly followed. 
When the patient has recovered, he should, after a bath, be 
put in clean clothing brought into the bath room, and should 
net reenter the sick chamber. The room and contents 
must be thoroughly disinfected. Throw the windows widely 
open. Soiled articles, with the wood-work of the room, should 
be thoroughly washed and scrubbed with hot water and 
soap, and then with the solution of chloride of lead. Articles 
of little value should be burned, also articles tbat will net 
stand washing. Fabrics must be subjected te continued boil- 
ing, and then dipped in disinfecting fluid. The wall paper 
had better be removed and burned. Ail these precautions 
must be observed, especially in the more contagdous diseases. 
Vhen itis a prolonged case of sickness which is net con- 
tagious, the room need net be se thoroughly dismantled, and 
more attention will be necessary in making the room cheerful 
and attractive. 
6. Stimulants in the Sick Room.--The free use of 
alcoholic stimulants in the sick room is new strongly depre- 
cated by those who have carefully watched their effects. 
Heart tonics and diffusable stimulants, such as ammonia, etc., 
are more serviceable than alcohol in the majority of cases. 
They have net the depressing after¢ffects, ner de they clog 
the system and interfere with nature's struggles towards the 
restoration of health. 
In the course of acute fevers, and in epidemics of virulent 
diseases, few physicians new resort te the routine treatment 
of alcoholic stimulants; indeed, if is a well-known fact that 
spiriç drinkers are the firsç victims in choiera and other 




1. The Benefits of Exercise.--The study of playsi 
ology, however brief, will impart such a knowledge of the 
construction of the human frame and the functions of its 
various organs as will enable us to interpret the many wants 
of the system, to appreciate the difference between that which 
is wholesome and that which is unnecessary or useless, to 
know what is required of us in aiding in that growth of 
body and mind which will attain to perfect mardaood, and 
to avoid the use of anything that tends to injure the health 
or undermine the constitution. Both miaad and body are 
more susceptible to external influences in youth than in 
mature age. Early attention is necessary to the formation 
of correct habits, not only in eating and drinking, but in 
every action and movement of tbe body. Excess in anything 
should be avoided. Vl'e have seen that excessive action of 
any part is sure to be followed by a corresponding reaction 
or loss of function in that part for a time. The heart may 
be induced by stimulants to act too fast, but there cornes a 
time when it will act too slowly. The mind may be over- 
exerted for a while, but reaction will set in and the brain 
become sluggish. The muscular system may be over-txed 
by hard labor or violent exercise, but weariness and pros- 
tration are the result. 
W]aile we can injure our systems by excesses, we can also 
do so by inattention or neglect. Untrained minds have not 
a large amount of brain energy. Sluggish circulations and 
enfeebled digestions frequently follow in people who lire 

in<loor, inactive lires. Want of strength, loss of growth, 
and lack of symmetry in form may ail result from a careless 
disregztrd of the necessity for daily exercise. Physical exer- 
cise stimulates the whole system, puts new life into every 
part, and gives increased energy and force to every organ of 
the body. It develops the various muscles, gives strength 
and form to the limb, and courage and ambition to the mind. 
The child grows proud, not only of his attainment of mus- 
cular strength, but of its effects. His body becomes better 
set up, the chest expanded, the shoulders well back and the 
head erect. The movements of the limbs are done with 
precision and ease. The step is elastic and the gait free and 
Physical exercise should be taken regularly and at stated 
times. If is not the impulsive exercise of a day that will 
improve the system. It is the taking of a certain amount 
of muscular action every day Too much exercise in one day 
or atone time is fatiguing, and will exhaust tbe strength 
rather than build it up. The amount of exercise must be 
regulated by the strength, and can be gradually incrased as 
the system becomes used toit. 
2. Kind of Exercise.--That kind of exercise which 
calls into action the greatest number of muscles is always 
the best. It is well to exercise as many of the muscles as 
possible at the same time, and as no one f«»rm of exercise or 
employment brings into use ail the muscles, the necessity for 
some variety is at once apparent. There is quite a variety 
of natural forms of exercise apart from the many occupations 
of life. Walking, riding on horseback or bicycle, rowing, 
swimming, skating, snow-shoeing, lawn tennis, football, and 
out<loor gaines generally are all valuable modes of natural 
exercise. They have also the great advantage of taking 
persons out into the open air and sunshine, 'here the lungs 
aro botter aupplied with puro air, and tho blood enriched 


with larger quantities of oxygen. Walking is one of the 
best exercises we can get, because it involves the use of a 
great many muscles. The legs, arms and body are all in 
motion, which means muscular action. Swimming is another 
form of exercise which is especially useful, inasmuch as it 
requires the active employment of a very large number of the 
muscles. A healthy, strong person in water of a moderate 
degree of warmth, so that too much heat of the body is not 
carried off, will, after a little practice, not only secure all 
the benefits of a bath, but also the good effects of the 
most perfect natural exercise. The feeling of comfort and 
general toning of the system after a good swim can hardly 
be obtained in any other way. 
But useful as are these natural forms of exercise, and eacb 
c«»mmendalfle f«»r some special feature, yet no shgle one o| 
them calls into acti.n all the voluntary muscles ; hence, in 
addition to these, itis adisable, especially during the period 
.f growth and development, to devote a certain time daily 
to artificial training of the muscles. 
3. Regulation of Exercise.--The kind of exercise most 
beneficial depends upo.n the ag the condition of healtt, and 
to a certain extent_t_he _sex_and the .occupation.. Exercise in 
health may with advantage be carried to slight weariness, 
but n,t so as te, cause a feeling of prostration. 
The employment of some affords ample exercise for the 
well-being of the body. The occupation of others is such 
that only a portion of the muscular system is engaged. In 
these the idle muscles should be exercised in other ways. 
The brain-worker needs exercise of the whole muscular 
system, and, when practicable, it should be varied from 
day to day. 
Exercise should be taken in the open air. As we have 
said, it is not the muscles alone that are benefited. The 
various organs are ruade to do more work. The action of 

the heart is increased, the breathing is deeper and moe 
rapid, and there is grear tivity of the circulation. Pure; 
fresh air roves the quaty of the b]oed thus snt more 
rapidly coursing through the sysm. The tissues of the 
body are supplied with tter material for building it up. 
The waste pruc are given off more freely and the skin, 
kidneys and lungs bave  do more work in getting rid of 
the uoed-up particles. 
A daily walk of four or rive mlles, or i equvalent  any 
ouoer exercise hot oy strengthe the voluntary muscles, 
ingoratg the whole system, but it also stimulates the 
muoeles which contçol the organs of distion, implores the 
appetite, and supplies the body with new material and new 
4. Time for Exercise.As a general rule, exercise 
should hOt be taken while ftg, n6 very n after taking 
a meal. Experience h shown that in the one case prostroe 
tion on follows, with lo o[ appetite, and in the other 
gestion of the food  delayed, and sometimes spped for a 
rime. e the smmh is most actively engaged, say, for 
two hours afr a meal, the body should have its leisure te. 
Let the occupation be as light and the exercise  gentle  
psible for at least the first hour after taking foed. 
Our longest period of fasting is during sleep. On rst 
risg in the morng the system is relaxed, and the body is 
the weakest. This is plainly hot the rime for exercise wch 
is at all olent or prolonged. Some b»od, if only a morse], 
shod be taken before going out to work or  study belote 
breakft. The eveng is n«t so gçd a rime for exercise as 
the earlier par o[ the day. Afr the many hours of work 
the eneres are nearly spenç and the body is timd. 
It is just as important  relate the form and amount of 
exercise to the rime of lire as  the rime oï day. e Httle 
child is not lely  take o mueh exercise. If  dp  

sleep when tired. A plucky lad may outdo his strength, and 
bring on i|lness, in his ambition to excel at some muscular 
feat, or overcome Iris felh»w in some gaine or sport. The 
satisfaction of defeating an opponent af lawn tennis, or the 
desire to carry off some trophy, may goad a young girl or an 
ambitious youth to physica| barre. The imprudent efforts of 
peop|e of midd|e and advanced 
age fo appear young, fo run fo 
"catch » the train or street car: 
or show their agility in other 
youthful ways, bave often caused 
sudden and'serious results. 
o. Necessity for Exercise. 
"hildren when deprived of sui- 
ficient out-door exercise are gen- 
erally pale, puny and delicate. 
lqothing weakens the young body 
like an in-door, inactive life. It 
makes a child tender and suscep- 
( tible fo the slightest change of 
 weather. Colds, coughs and head- 
aches are quite common. Chil- 
dren of the working-classes are 
usually strong and healthy. They 
may hot be well clad, perhaps 
Fro. 52.--Cum'atureofSpine. they are often dirty, but they 
bave the freedom of the lanes, 
the fields and the streets, and spend the greater part of the 
day in the open air. 
The development of the child's body from day to day calls 
for close attention fo ifs many requirements. Proper nourish- 
ment must be suppliœed and suitable c]othing provided. The 
child must be taken out into the fresh air, and directed and 
encouraged in those efforts of physical exertion which tend to 
strengthen the system and hasten its growth. 



The bones and ligaments of the young are sort and pliable. 
They readily grow into false positions by constant habits of 
stooping or bending to one side. The spinal column is kept 
in position by a well-balanced action of the muscles supplied 
to if, and if these are unevenly exercised they become stronger 
on one side than the other, and draw the spine to that side, 
producing a lateral curve (Fig. 52), which, if allowed fo exist 

for some rime, may 
cause a permanent de- 
formity. Children 
whose constitutions are 
natura]]y weak are more 
apt to grow into false 
positions than the 
healthy and robust, and 
hence require more care- 
fui attention. Fig. 53 
is an illustration of how 
curvature of the spine 
is brought about, and 
shows the marked con- 
trast between this posi- 
tion, which is productive 
of so much deformity, 
and the natural position, 
as shown in Fig. 54. 

Fro. 58.-- A school-gir| at her desk in « position 
often tesulting in curtture of the spine. 

But there is another element which entërs largely into the 
child's life. The training of the mind is as important as the 
training of the body. The child must be sent to school, and 
remain more or less inactive for several hours a day. As it 
grows older, tasks will be given that involve close application 
to books at home as well as du.ring school-hours, and so it 
becomes necessary for the teacher, in regulating the various 



exorcises, fo provide as carefully for the neods of the body as 
of the mind. 
6. Gymnastic Training.--The importance of physical as 
well as mental training is being recogzed at the present 
time by the introduction into schools and colleges of syste 
matic drill, calisthenics, and various other forms of gymnastic 

duced into the schools of Ontario. 

exercises. The object 
of physical culture is 
threefold : To bring in- 
to action muscles which 
otherwise vould be idle; 
to secure a symmetrical 
development of the 
hole body, with a per- 
fect control of every 
muscle, and to give 
grace and freedom of 
There are various sys- 
teins of gymuastics, but 
the two which are re- 
cognized as the great 
systems are the German 
and the Swedish. Modi- 
fied forms of one or other 
of these systems are 
gradually being intro- 
The scope of this work 

does hOt allow a full description of any system. If may be 
stated, however, that they hot only secure physical training, 
but as well a species of light mental exercise. The mind is 
engaged as well as the body. The object is to make the 
mind act quickly in conjunction with prompt motion. Af 
the word of command, a whole class performs certain more- 


ments together. This united action leads to a desire on the 
part of each to excel, or at least fo do as well as others, 
and eventually every member of the class bas developed in 
him a desire fo remedy his defects, to carry himself erect, be 
graceful in figure, and more with ease and facility. 
Very little apparatus is necessary. 5[otions and more- 
ments of the body may be ruade without anything in the way 
of appliances. Wooden dumb-Dells are as g«x as metal ones. 
The muscles of the arm can be exercised just as well without 
tlœe actual weight in the fist. By effort the same tension tan 
be put upon the muscles of the arm to raise a pen-handle as 
to raise a ten-pound dumb-belh The weight of a body is 
measured by the amount of muscular force it is necessary 
to use in ortier to lift it. If we use the saine muscular force 
to raise the pen-handle as the ten-pound weight, the muscles 
have done the same amount of work. But these various 
movements should not De ruade at any great expense of 
muscular force. They may be carried to the extent of slight 
fatigue, but not beyond. An exercise of fifteen minutes is 
quite long enough at any one time, and if during the practice 
it produces a feeling of dizziness or discomfort» it should be 
at once discontinued. 
Physical culture in schools is intended not so much to 
promote growth as to correct false positions and habits of 
sitting, standing or walking, and thus guard against deform- 
ities of the body and lack of symmetry in its development. 
Keeping these objects in view, that form of physical training 
which is necessary in any particular case can De selected 
from the following exercises, compiled and rearranged from 
Lucy B. Hunt's " Handbook of Light Gymnastics," by Dr. 
A. F. Blaisdell, for his estimable little work, "Our Bodies 
and How We Lire ": 




Position.--Stand with heels together, hipa and shoulders 
back, hands firmly closed and wel| boek upon the ehest. 
Directions.--Each number fills a strain of music, except 
when otherwise specified. 
Keep the heels together and hips back, unless the exerc£e 
otherwise directs. The arms overhead should always be with 
eltows unbent. 
These exercises should be taken slowly and with caution at 
fit. As the strength increases, greater rapidity and force 
should be empioyed. 
Music for the free gymnastics-should either be in galop or 
polka time. 
l. Thrust right hand down twice, left twiee, alternately 
twice, together twice. 
2. Repeat No. 1, only thrust hands out at sides instead 
of down. 
3. Repeat No. 1, thrusting hands directly up. 
4. Iepeat :No. l, thrusting hands from shoulders directly 
5. light hand down once, left-once, then clap hands 
through test of stra/n. 
6. Saine exercise, out af sides. 
7. Same exercise, directly up. 
8. Saine exercise, out in front. 

9. ]ands on the hips, step with right foot forward, then 
diagonally forward, directly at side, diagonally back, directly 



back, cross back of left, cross again still farther back ; lastly, 
cross in front of left foot, returning to position after each 


Fm.. Fm 5 

10. Repeat No. 9, with left foot. 

11. Stmp with right foot forward three rimes, advancing 
each rime, then left three rimes. Stamp three times back 
with right foot, saine with left. 
12. Repeat No. 11. 
13. ttands still on hips, twist body alternately to right and 
eft, twice each ; four beats of music. 
14. Bend body alternately to right and left, four beats of 
music finishing the strain. 


15. Bend body alternately 
forward and back, twice each. 
16. Bend body first right, 
then back, left, front; re- 
verse, left, back, right, front. 
finishing the strain. 
17. Same as No. 13, only 
twist the head. 
18. Saine as No. 14, only 
bend the head instead of the 

19. Same as No. 15, with head only. 
20. Like No. 16, bend head instead of body, right, Ick, 
left, front, then reverse. 
21. Amas extended in front, bring them forcibly bck to 
chest eight rimes. 
22. Amas again extended, raise right hand twîce without 
bending the elbow, then left twice, Mternately twice, together 
23. Hands closed on chest, thrust down, out, up, and in 
front twisting the arms each thrust ; repeat. 
24. Thrust hands from chest toward floor without bending 
the knees, stop on chest then over head, rising on toes, and 
opening hands at each thrust continue in half rime through 
the strain. 
25. Cross left foot over right, af saine rime touching fmgers 
over head ; then right foot over left, alternately in half rime 
through the strain. 


26. Stamp left foot, then right, 
charge diagonally forward with 
right foot, bend and straighten 
right knee, at the saine time 
carrying arms back from hori- 
zontal in front. When the arms 
are extended in front, the hands 
should be the width of the shoul- 
ders apart. 
27. Repeat this exercise on 
the left side. 

Fzo. 58. 

Position.--Heels together, hips and shoulders back, bells 
down at sides. One-half of each strain of music is given to 
the exercise, the other half to what is called "the attitude." 
In taking these attitudes the bells are brought first to the 
chest; then, unless otherwise specified, placed upon the hips. 
Directions.--Step carefully but quickly to all the atti- 
tudes, o 
Rest oftener than in the other exercises. 
Use too light, rather than too heavy, dumb-bells. Old- 
fashioned waltzes are best for these exercises. Scotch airs 
and airs from popular operas, in this rime, can easily be 
adapted by a skilful musician. 
EXERCmW 11. 
28. lands down at sides, palms in front, turn bells four 
rimes, bringing them t chest on foarth accented beat. 


Attitude : Step diagonally forward with right foot, carrying 
hands to hips, looking over right shoulder. 
29. Elbows at sides, turn bells just half-way round four 
Altitude: Step diagonally forward with left foot, looking 
over left shoulder. 
30. Arms extended at sides, turn bell four time 
Attitude : Step diagonally back vith right foot, looking 
over right shoulder. 
31. Arms extended over head, palms in front, turn bells 
f«»ur times. 
Attitude : Step diagonally back witb ]eft foot, loo-king over 
left shoulder. 
EX.lClS. 12. 
32. Bells far bck on chest, thrust both down, out at sides, 
up, and out in front. 
A ttitude : Turn to the right, throw arms up at side without 
bending the knees. The bells in this attitude should be 
exactly horizontal and parallel. 
33. Repeat No. 32, turning to tho left and throwing tho 
arms up on left side. 
Attitude : Repeat attitude 1go. 32. 

Exmcls. 13. 
34. Drop bells at sides, right hand up to armpit once, left 
once, together twice. 
Attitude: Drop to sitting position, bells touching the floor, 
test through the remainder of the strain. 

35. Bells on shoulders, thrust ech up once, both together 
Attitude : Rise on toes, palms forward, bells parallel. 
36. Arms extended in front, turn four rimes. 


Attitude: Step diago- 
nally forward with right 
foot, right hand on hip, 
looking back at left bell, 
which is extended in left 

EXERCmE 15. 
37. Arms extended 
sideways at an angle of 
forty-five degrees, turn 
bells four times. 
Attitude: Step for- 
ward with left foot, left  
hand on hip, looking 
back at right bell, 
which is extended in right hand. 

Fro. 59. 

38. Bells on chest, right hand down, then up, left hand tho 
Attitude: Turn body to the right, thrust right hand o1 
liquely up, palm up ; left hand obliquely down, pahn down. 

39. Bells on chest, right hand up, left down ; reverse, then 
both down, both up. 
Attitude : Turn to left, thrust hands up and down, as in 
No. 38. 
40. Arms extended in front, palms opposite, right hand up 
once, left tho saine, both together up twice 
This should he done without bending the elbows. 


Attitude : Step diagonally forward with right foot, the body 
and head thrown forward, and al-ills thrown wide apart. 
41. Repeat No. 40. 
Attitude : Repeat attitude o. 40, on the left side. 

EXECmE 19. 

42. Arms extended at sides, right arm up once, left once, 
both twice, without bending the knees. 
Attitude : Step diagonally back with right foot, right hand 
up, with bell perpendicular, left hand on hip. 
43. Repeat No. 42. 
Attitude : Repeat attitude on left side. 


44. Arms extended, with bells parallel in front, bring the 
bells back forcibly upon the chest four times. 
Attitude : Fold the arms with bells closely pressed against 
the chest, and bend back slowly from the waist. 


Directions.--Always select a wand just long enough to 
reach the armpit when placed on the floor at one's side. Ail 
exercises from behind the head or back should be taken with 
caution, and avoided altogether by those with weak backs. 
lositioll.--Heels together, hips and shoulders well back. 
The wand is held in front of the right shoulder, till first 
signal from piano, which consists of three chords struck with 
both hands, the first being the length of the other two ; then 
drop it horizontally in front of the body. At second signal 
raise the wand till the amas are extended in horizontal posi- 
tion in front of body, place the hands so as to divide the 


wand into three equal parts. At third sial, carry the wand 
back to second position down in front. 
The simplest of Strauss's waltzes must be used, or those of 

other compoaers similar 
in style. 
45. Raise the wand 
to chin four rimes, keep- 
ing elbows high, last 
time carry it above the 
head, then bring down 
under chin four times. 
46. Carry wand îrom 
above the head nearly 
to floor, four times, 
without bending knees 
or elbows, then down 
back of the neck four 
47. Carry wand from 
above the head to chin, 


Fro. 60. 

_and then back of neck, alternately four times each. 

48. Wand over beaU. On iïrst best, carry right hand fo 
right end of wand; on second best, left hand to left end, 
then carry hand back of head t hips, six times, keeping 
elbows stiff. 
49. Carry wand back from above 
floor; and then back to hips, four times, alternately four 
times each. 
50. Carry wand from above the head to right and left sides 
alternately eight times, keeping elbows stiff, and stopping 
exactly over head each rime. 


ExEncls 23. 
51. On first beat, let go wand with left hand, place end of 
wand on floor between feet. Or second beat, place wand on 
,¢w af arm's length, diagonally forward on right side. Step 
with right f,,ot fo wand through test of strain, keeping right 
arm, left knee, and wand perfect]y straight. 
52. Repcat :No. 51 on ]eft side. 
53. Repeat No. 51, keeping the foot stationary, tlm knee 
bending with each accented best. 
54. Ytepeat No. 53 on left side. 

",,XE RCIS E -o4. 
55. Arms horizontal in front, wand held perpendcularly, 
brin wand back to chest eiht times, keeping elbows high. 
56. Vand and arms in saine position bïing wand to right 
and left shoulders alter-:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 
nately four tlmes each. In "... .... /-:../. 
passing thi and from one "-.. '.: .. / 
side to the other, ralse the " :"-  / " 
arms straight fo a horizon- "" "'  //: / 
tal position in front. I " 

57. Hands in front of 
chest) point wand diago -w -- 
nally forward af an angle 
of forty-five degrees, first 
to the right, then fo the 
left, alternately through 
strain making the change 
of hands just in front of 
58. With wand pointing 
in the saine direction as in 


last exercise, step diagonally forward with right and left foot 
alternately thruugh strain. 
59. Repeat No. 58, only step back instead of forward, 
leading with left foot instead of right, keeping wand pointing 
60. "Vand horizontal over head, right hand in front, reverse 
position, brin&ring left hand in front, on hall time through 
the strain. 
61. Saine position, right face, bend forward, bringing wand 
to perpendicular on right side, four rimes. 
62. Repeat No. 61, on left side. 

Ex.Rcxs. 27. 
63. On first beat, put left end of wand on floor in front of 
feet ; on second beat, carry wand at arm's length in front, 
charge right foot to wand twice, left four rimes, chan4ng 
hands and feet at same rime. 
64. Right foot back four rimes, right hand on wand, saine 
with left hand and foot. 
65. Right foot forward and back four times left the same, 
holding wand in same position as last exercise. 
66. Both hands on wand in front, right foot forward lef 
back at the saine time, reverse and repeat. 


Directions.--These exercises are performed in couples, 
partners facing esch other about three feet apart; the one 
standing on right of teacher on platform, holding both rings. 
Schottische time is the best, but slow marches and quick- 
steps can be used. 
In all exercises, turning back to back, be careful and hot 


pull suddenly, and never let go the ring before the word 
is given. 
Always stand at such a distance from next couple that 
there can be no hitting of rings. 
The rings should always be strongly ruade, and about six 
inches in diameter. 


67. On first beat of music, the ring in right hand is ex- 
tended, and grasped by partner's right hand. Second beat, 
right feet together, toes touching ; on third beat, left feet 
back at right angles with right feet, with left hands upon 
hips. Turn the ring over halï-way and then back to place 
through rest of strain, keeping perfect rime. 
68. Repeat No. 67, only use left hand and left foot, instead 
of right. 
69. Repeat No. 67, only first join both hands, on second 
beat, right feet together, third beat, step back, as before, 
turn rings through strain. 
70. Repeat No. 69, with both hands joined and left feet 
touching, right feet back, turn rings through strain. 

ExERcsE 29. 
71. On first beat, turn back to back, on second beat, left 
feet together, charge direcfly forward with right feet ; head 
and shoulders well thrown back, pull evenly with partner, 
and turn the rings through strain. 
72. Repeat No. 71, with right feet together, left out in 
front, turn rings through strain. 

73. On first beat, turn face to face, on second beat, raise 
arms above head, then lower rings without bending knees, 


looking alternately to right and left of partner through 
74. First beat, lift arms towards platform, high up at 
side, the others low down at the opposite side, carry them 
alternately up and down through half the strain, then both 
together, half a strain. 


75. First beat, turn back to back, charge diagonally for- 
ward with right and left feet alternately through atrain. 
76. First beat, turn face to face, place left f,ot inside part 
ner's left, short step back -ith right foot at right angles 
with the left. Rings over head held firmly, arms perfectly 
straight, sway alternately through the strain. 
77. Repeat No. 76, with right feet together, instead of left. 

78. First beat, turn back to back, charge up and down the 
hall alternately twice each; charge with right feet at same 
time, then left feet at saine time alternately through rest 
of strain. 
79. First beat, turn face to face, repeat No. 78. 




By the reulations of the Education Department, at leas% 
one hour per veek shall be devoted to familiar conversations 
with the whole school on the effect of alcoholi6-stimulants 
and of narcotics upon the human system. Attention should 
also be called to the degrading tendencies of their habitual 
use, and their injury to the individual and to society gene- 
rally. These conversations are in addition to the course of 
study prescribed for the fourth and fifth forms. 
The chapters upon digestion, respiration, the circulation 
of the blood, and the nervous system shall be studied in the 
Fourth Form, and the examination for entrance fo the High 
School shall be based upon the pupil's knowledge of these 
chapters. The maximum marks awarded is seventy-tlve» one- 
third being required for pass. 
In the Fifth Form, the course in the Fourth Form is con- 
tinued, including also the other subjects of the text-book. 
In the case of candidates who rail to pass the Lea,ing Exami- 
nation, twenty-five per cent. of the maximum marks will be 
required for Entrance. 




"Any licensed person who allows to be supplied in his 
licensed premises, by purchase or otherwise, any description 
whatever of liquor to any person apparently under the age 
of eighteen years, of either sex, not being a resident on the 
premises, or a bona ride guest or lodger, shall, as well as the 
person who actually gives or supplies the liquor, be liable to 
pay a penalty of hot less than $10, and hot exceeding $20, 
for every such offence. 
"Any licenoed person who allows to be supplied in his 
licensed premises, by sale or otherwise, any description what 
ever of liquor to any person under the age of twenty-one 
years (hereinafter called the minor), in respect of whom a 
notice in writing has been given to any such licensed person, 
signed by the father, mother, guardian or toaster of such 
minor, correctly stating the age of such minor, and forbidding 
such licensed person to sell or supply such minor with liquor, 
the said minor hot being resident on the premises, or a bona 
ïde guest or lodger, shall, as well as the person who actually 
gives or supplies the liquor, be liable to pay a penalty of not 
less than $10, and not exceeding $20, besides costs h,r every 
tch offcace." 





]er Iajesty, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Legislative Assembly, enacts as foIlows : 
l. Any person who either directly or indirectly sells or 
gives, or furnishes to a minor under eighteen yers of ge, 
Cigarettes, Cigars, or Tobacco in any form, shM1, on summary 
con'icti,,n thereof bef,»re a Justice of the Peace, be subect to 
a penalty of hot less than $10, or more than $50, with or 
qthout costs of prosecution, or to imprisonment, with or 
without hard labor, for any term hot exceeding thirty days, 
or to both fine with or without costs and imprisonment to the 
said amount and for the said terre, in the discretion of the 
convicting magistrate. 
And in case of a fine, or a fine and costs being awarded, 
and of the saine not being, upon comJction, forthqth paid, 
the Justice ma)" commit the offender to the Common Gaol, 
there to be imprisoned for any terre hot exceeding thirty 
days, unless the fine and costs are sooner paid. 
2. This Act shall not apply to a sale to the minor for his 
parent or guardian, under a written request or order of the 
prent or guardian. 
3. A person -ho shall appear to the Iastrate to be 
under eighteen years of age, shall be presumed to be under 
that age unless it is shown by evidenc that he « in fact over 
that age. 
4. This Act shall go iato effect on the 1st day of July, 1892.